Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics and dietary nutrients intake of participants by quartiles (Q) of total phytosterols intake

From: Associations of dietary phytosterols with blood lipid profiles and prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults, a cross-sectional study

  Quartiles based on total phytosterols intake  
Characteristics Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P
Total, n 228 228 228 228  
Age, y 32.4 ± 12.2a 33.5 ± 13.1a 29.4 ± 11.4b 33.2 ± 12.6a 0.002
Gender, M/W 109/119 88/140 106/122 106/122 0.179
Income per month      0.027
 < 2000 yuan, n (%) 133 (58.3) 133 (58.3) 154 (67.5) 158 (69.3)  
 2000–5000 yuan, n (%) 86 (37.7) 92 (40.4) 70 (30.7) 64 (28.1)  
 ≥ 5000 yuan, n (%) 9 (3.9) 3 (1.3) 4 (1.8) 6 (2.6)  
Education      < 0.001
 Under college, n (%) 46 (20.2) 52 (22.8) 54 (23.7) 72 (31.6)  
 Bachelor, n (%) 162 (71.1) 166 (72.8) 170 (74.5) 152 (66.7)  
 Master or doctor, n (%) 20 (8.8) 10 (4.4) 4 (1.8) 4 (1.8)  
PAL      0.145
 Light, n (%) 58 (25.4) 58 (25.4) 58 (25.4) 70 (32.5)  
 Medium, n (%) 160 (70.2) 161 (70.6) 168 (73.7) 154 (67.5)  
 Heavy, n (%) 10 (4.4) 9 (3.9) 2 (0.9) 4 (1.8)  
Exercise      0.949
 < 10 h/week, n (%) 101 (44.3) 94 (41.2) 88 (38.6) 92 (40.4)  
 10–20 h/week, n (%) 98 (43.0) 104 (45.6) 108 (47.4) 106 (46.5)  
 ≥ 20 h/week, n (%) 29 (12.7) 30 (13.2) 32 (14.0) 30 (13.2)  
Smokinga      0.072
 Non-smoker, n (%) 206 (90.4) 207 (90.8) 210 (92.1) 194 (85.1)  
 Current smoker, n (%) 22 (9.6) 21 (9.2) 18 (7.9) 34 (14.9)  
Drinkinga      0.636
 Non-drinker, n (%) 182 (79.8) 184 (80.7) 184 (80.7) 192 (84.2)  
 Current drinker, n (%) 46 (20.2) 44 (19.3) 44 (19.3) 36 (15.8)  
Overweight/obesity, n (%) 100 (43.9) 90 (39.5) 82 (36.0) 74 (32.5) 0.075
Abdominal obesity, n (%) 77 (33.8) 62 (27.2) 59 (25.9) 54 (23.7) 0.092
Dietary intakes
 Energy, kcal 2179.3 ± 528.7a 2271.9 ± 551.5b 2368.9 ± 548.6c 2498.2 ± 494.1d < 0.001
 Protein, g/d 76.1 ± 21.2a 82.9 ± 23.9b 86.9 ± 24.9b 95.2 ± 22.1c < 0.001
 Fat, g/d 60.2 ± 23.0a 69.5 ± 23.7b 74.3 ± 24.7c 86.4 ± 21.7d < 0.001
 Carbohydrate, g/d 344.9 ± 93.6 343.6 ± 89.9 353.0 ± 91.7 355.8 ± 89.8 0.399
 Fiber, g/d 14.4 ± 3.9a 17.3 ± 4.4b 19.5 ± 4.9c 23.1 ± 5.2d < 0.001
 Cholesterol, mg/d 382.9 ± 230.5a 461.1 ± 266.9b 445.8 ± 275.0b 504.2 ± 260.4c < 0.001
 Total plant sterols, mg/d 161.9 ± 23.0 231.3 ± 20.1 294.0 ± 18.8 383.0 ± 54.4 < 0.001
 β-sitosterol, mg/d 96.4 ± 16.8a 139.9 ± 22.2b 187.9 ± 27.9c 255.7 ± 47.3d < 0.001
 campesterol, mg/d 32.5 ± 13.4a 48.8 ± 20.4b 51.4 ± 26.9b 57.9 ± 29.2c < 0.001
 stigmasterol, mg/d 12.5 ± 5.4a 15.0 ± 5.9b 17.8 ± 7.5c 19.0 ± 7.3d < 0.001
 β-sitostanol, mg/d 9.2 ± 4.4a 13.3 ± 5.6b 18.5 ± 6.6c 27.2 ± 7.5d < 0.001
 campestanol, mg/d 11.3 ± 3.3a 14.4 ± 4.0b 18.3 ± 4.2c 23.2 ± 4.8d < 0.001
  1. P values are for differences across quartiles of total plant sterols intake; Data are mean ± SD or frequency (percentage), a, b, c, d, mean values with unlike letters were significantly different (P < 0.05)
  2. Abbreviations: PAL physical activity level
  3. a There is no report of quitting smoking or quitting drinking in our population