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Table 1 Baseline characteristic and risk factors of patients in Gum Arabic and Placebo groups (n = 91)

From: Effect of Gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) supplementation on visceral adiposity index (VAI) and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as indicators of cardiovascular disease (CVD): a randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial

Variables Gum Arabic (n = 46) Placebo (n = 45)  
  SEM   SEM P value 95 % C.I of differences
Lower Upper
Age (Years) a 49.96 ± 8.73 1.29 50.22 ± 9.29 1.39 0.89 −4.02 3.49
Male b 12(26.1%)   6(26.1%)   0.19   
Female b 34(73.9%)   39(86.7%)    
Duration of DM (months) a 64.04 ± 55.43 8.17 59.53 ± 48.09 7.17 0.68 −17.13 26.15
Height (cm) a 162.26 ± 9.01 1.33 161.07 ± 8.82 1.31 0.52 −2.52 4.91
Weight (kg) a 72.86 ± 15.72 2.32 77.07 ± 13.84 2.06 0.18 −10.38 1.96
Waist circumferences (cm) a 98.65 ± 12.41 1.83 94.76 ± 14.9 2.22 0.18 −1.81 9.60
WHR a 0.93 ± 0.08 0.011 0.89 ± 0.10 0.015 0.08 −0.00 0.067
BMI (Kg/m2) a 27.66 ± 5.37 0.79 29.96 ± 6.54 0.97 0.07 −4.79 0.19
BAI a 33.90 ± 7.46 1.10 34.38 ± 8.65 1.29 0.77 −3.64 2.72
VAI a 3.17 ± 2.29 0.34 2.08 ± 1.55 0.23 0.01 0.24 2.00
DAAT,cm2 a 190.92 ± 70.88 10.45 153.65 ± 67.37 10.04 0.01 5.61 62.90
LAP,cm.mmol/l a 61.28 ± 39.46 5.81 41.65 ± 32.86 4.90 0.01 2.66 36.58
SBP (mmHg) a 131.74 ± 16.37 2.43 128.44 ± 14.45 2.19 0.312 −3.14 9.73
DBP (mmHg) a 80.00 ± 9.89 1.42 78.22 ± 8.87 1.35 0.148 −2.14 5.69
TG (mmol/l) a 1.54 ± 0.63 0.093 1.10 ± 0.54 0.08 0.00 0.156 0.72
HDL(mmol/l) a 1.10 ± 0.39 0.058 1.15 ± 0.39 0.059 0.57 −0.22 0.12
Hypertension b 14(30.4%)   6(13.3%)   0.07   
Smoking b 5(10.9%)   2(4.4%)   0.43   
Exercise this year b,c 3(6.5%)   2(4.4%)   0.66   
Alcohol consumption b 2(4.3%)   2(4.4%)   0.98   
  1. Values are presented as a Mean ± SD, b number (percentage) [15]
  2. Abbreviations: BMI Body Mass Index, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure
  3. c Exercise in year 2014 to 2015
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