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Table 2 Intent-to-treat analysis of the effect of 12 weeks of HIT or MCT on postprandial lipemia biochemical and vascular function response after HFM ingestion

From: Exercise and postprandial lipemia: effects on vascular health in inactive adults

  HIT MCT
0 min 60 min 120 min 180 min 240 min 0 min 60 min 120 min 180 min 240 min
Biochemical parameters
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 151.3 (21.0) 159.0 (28.1) 159.0 (30.2) 163.2 (30.0) 164.8 (20.2) 153.1 (29.09) 158.6 (25.1) 165.1(25.1) 166.8 (25.0) 167.1 (29.4)
 High-density lipoprotein (mg/dL) 46.0 (14.1) 47.3 (14.6) 46.1 (12.7) 48.1(16.1) 48.7(15.9) 42.1 (9.5) 44.2 (11.6) 42.5 (12.2) 41.6 (12.6) 40.5 (10.9)
 Triglycerides (mg/dL) 108.1 (35.8) 118.7 (41.7) 142.1 (53.7) 177.2 (91.5) 171.7 (84.5) 117.7 (33.1) 132.4 (31.1) 196.8 (56.1) 222.7 (68.2) 222.5 (91.2)
 Glucose (mg/dL) 76.4 (11.0) 78.8 (12.9) 88.5 (8.8)b 84.3 (7.8) 86.3 (5.0 85.9 (6.3) 93.6 (12.4) 94.2 (7.8) 93.3 (10.3) 89.5 (10.7)
Vascular function parameters
 Dbase, mm 2.7 (0.4) 2.8 (0.3) 2.7 (0.3) 2.7 (0.4) 2.8 (0.3) 3.1 (0.5) 3.2 (0.4) 3.2 (0.5) 3.3 (0.5) 3.4 (0.4)
 FMD, % 13.4 (4.6) 6.3 (7.3)a 12.3 (5.3) 12.0 (5.8) 10.4 (4.6) 9.4 (4.0) 6.1 (3.9) 7.5 (3.1) 7.3 (5.7) 6.7 (4.5)
Dpeak mm 3.0 (0.3) 2.9 (0.3) 3.1 (0.3) 3.0 (0.3) 3.1 (0.4) 3.4 (0.5) 3.4 (0.5) 3.4 (0.4) 3.6 (0.5) 3.6 (0.4)
Ddiff 0.3 (0.2) 0.1 (0.1) 0.4 (0.3) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2) 0.3 (0.2) 0.2 (0.1) 0.2 (0.1) 0.3 (0.2) 0.2 (0.1)
 nFMD, % 13.5 (6.3) 13.4 (4.6) 11.7 (6.1) 11.8 (7.3) 10.1 (5.1) 8.1 (4.1) 9.4 (4.0) 6.5 (3.2) 6.3 (5.2) 5.5 (4.2)
 PWV, m·s−1 6.6 (1.5) 7.0 (1.6) 6.6 (2.4) 6.7 (1.2) 6.8 (1.0) 6.7 (0.9) 6.5 (1.0) 6.7 (1.0) 6.5 (1.0) 6.7 (1.0)
 AIx (aortic), % 26.3 (14.6) 14.7 (9.4) 15.9 (12.1) 18.3 (12.5) 19.1 (9.2) 38.7 (69.0) 7.6 (4.2) 3.6 (16.0) 9.5 (4.1) 11.2 (7.0)
 AIx (brachial), % −22.3 (28.9) −45.2 (18.7) −42.7 (24.0) −38.1 (24.8) −36.5 (18.2) −41.7 (16.5) −59.3 (8.5) −34.6 (45.0) −55.5 (8.2) −52.0 (13.8)
 PP(mmHg) 45.5 (7.7) 49.8 (7.3) 45.9 (8.5) 48.5 (10.4) 47.4 (7.4) 45.1 (7.6) 46.7 (6.4) 51.0 (8.4) 46.0 (6.6) 48.8 (7.2)
 SBPao (mmHg) 107.6 (14.2) 102.4 (7.7) 102.6 (12.9) 105.8 (10.2) 106.3 (9.6) 104.3 (7.3) 103.6 (8.4) 104.5 (6.1) 105.0 (8.4) 109.3 (9.6)
 PPao (mmHg) 40.6 (6.6) 39.0 (3.4) 36.9 (7.1) 39.7 (6.3) 39.3 (5.1) 30.7 (12.9) 33.8 (5.3) 38.0 (6.9) 35.0 (6.2) 36.8 (6.1)
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 112.5 (9.1) 113.2 (6.4) 111.5 (8.4) 114.6 (7.2) 114.3 (6.6) 113.0 (7.6) 116.4 (9.1) 118.6 (6.1) 117.0 (8.1) 121.2 (10.8)
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 67.0 (10.3) 63.4 (8.8) 65.6 (11.4) 66.1 (9.1) 67.0 (8.0) 67.8 (9.4) 69.7 (6.2) 66.5 (6.6) 71.0 (11.7) 72.4 (6.8)
 Mean blood pressure (mmHg) 82.0 (9.2) 80.0 (7.4) 80.8 (9.7) 82.2 (7.0) 82.9 (6.7) 82.8 (7.8) 85.3 (6.8) 83.7 (5.2) 86.2 (10.2) 88.7 (7.7)
  1. Values are participant characteristics at baseline, mean (SD). HIT4 × 4-min high-intensity interval training, MCT moderate-intensity continuous training, D diameter, FMD flow-mediated vasodilation, FMDn, normalized flow-mediated vasodilation, PWV pPulse wave velocity, AIx, augmentation index, PP pulse pressure, SBPao central systolic blood pressure. PPao, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure. Whole group repeated measures ANOVA, a = 0 min vs 60 min; b = 0 min 120 min