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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of newly diagnosed diabetes and non-diabetes subjects from the total cohort

From: Impact of serum cholesterol esterification rates on the development of diabetes mellitus in a general population

Characteristics Non-diabetes Diabetes P Value *
Number of subjects 1450 46  
Age, years 55.6 ± 14.1 56.8 ± 10.9 0.599
Male sex (%) 37.4 54.3 0.02
History of hypertension, % 30.1 39.1 0.19
Current smoker, % 20.3 30.4 0.09
BMI, kg/m2 22.4 ± 2.8 25.3 ± 3.0 <  0.001
Waist circumference, cm 72.0 ± 7.9 79.8 ± 10.2 <  0.001
Waist/Hip 0.81 ± 0.06 0.86 ± 0.08 <  0.001
SBP, mmHg 132 ± 21 141 ± 20 0.003
DBP, mmHg 77 ± 12 81 ± 13 0.01
HbA1c, % 5.1 ± 0.4 5.6 ± 0.4 <  0.001
Glucose, mmol/L 5.51 ± 0.68 6.03 ± 1.07 <  0.001
IRI, U/mL 2.9 (1.6–5.4) 4.5 (2.9–8.7) 0.002
TC, mmol/L 5.15 ± 0.91 5.47 ± 1.23 0.02
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.54 ± 0.38 1.31 ± 0.32 <  0.001
Non-HDL-C, mmol/L 3.61 ± 0.97 4.16 ± 1.28 <  0.001
TG, mmol/L 0.98 (0.71–1.40) 1.61 (1.04–2.13) <  0.001
Phospholipids, mg/dL 219 ± 32 232 ± 45 0.01
Free fatty acids, Eq/L 563 (265–852) 498 (246–942) 0.95
LCAT activity, nmol mL−1 h− 1 76.4 ± 21.2 92.0 ± 21.2 <  0.001
  1. Values are expressed as means ± standard deviations except IRI, TG, and free fatty acids which are given as the medians and the interquartile ranges in parentheses
  2. * P < 0.05 is considered to indicate statistically significant differences between men and women. The Mann-Whitney nonparametric test was used for the differences of IRI, TG and free fatty acids. The other continuous variables were estimated by Student’s t-test
  3. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, IRI immunoreactive insulin, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, TG triglyceride, LCAT lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase