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Table 2 Comparison of characteristics between participants with and without low back pain among men

From: Association between serum lipids and low back pain among a middle-aged Japanese population: a large-scale cross-sectional study

  Low back pain (+) (n = 3726) Low back pain (−) (n = 165,880) p valuea
Age (years)
 40–49 1478 39.7 79,296 47.8 <  0.001
 50–59 1455 39.0 60,493 36.5
 60–64 793 21.3 26,091 15.7
Height (cm) 169.1 (6.6) 169.1 (6.4) 0.486
Weight (kg) 69.3 (12.0) 68.5 (11.6) <  0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 <  18.5 129 3.5 6029 3.6 <  0.001
 18.5–24.9 2261 60.7 105,600 63.7
 ≥ 25 1336 35.8 54,251 32.7
Physical activity (min/day)
 ≥ 60 1244 33.4 56,939 34.3 0.233
 <  60 2482 66.6 108,941 65.7
Smoking status
 None 1249 33.5 56,805 34.2 <  0.001
 Former 813 21.8 30,712 18.5
 Current 1664 44.7 78,363 47.2
Alcohol intake
 None 1085 29.1 47,372 42.5 0.054
 Sometimes 1010 27.1 47,955 28.9
 Everyday 1631 43.8 70,553 28.6
LDL-C (mg/dL)
 Normal (<  140) 2605 69.9 117,219 70.7 0.320
 High (≥ 140) 1121 30.1 48,661 29.3
HDL-C (mg/dL)
 Normal (≥ 40) 3294 88.4 151,118 91.1 <  0.001
 Low (<  40) 432 11.6 14,762 8.9
LDL-C/HDL-C ratio
 Low (<  2.5) 2178 58.5 102,889 62.0 <  0.001
 High (≥ 2.5) 1548 41.5 62,991 38.0
  1. Data are presented as number and percentage, or mean (standard deviation)
  2. LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
  3. aPearson chi-square test or unpaired t test