a Primary rat hepatocytes treated with 250 μmol/l palmitic and 5 μmol/l chlorogenic acid presented restored cell viability to levels observed in untreated cells on MTT reduction and LDH release. Data represent mean ± S.E.M., n = 5, *P<0.05 vs. control (0 μmol/l palmitic acid), **P<0.05 vs. palmitic acid-only cells. b Treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with 250 μmol/L palmitic acid produced a significant increase in activity of caspase-3. For comparison, the effects of thapsigargin(Thap; 5μmol/l)are also shown. Data represent mean±S.E.M., n=5, *P< 0.05 vs. control (0 μmol/l palmitic acid), **P< 0.05 vs. palmitic acid-only cells.