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Table 8 Antioxidant characteristics of some dairy products

From: Antioxidant properties of Milk and dairy products: a comprehensive review of the current knowledge

Study design Conclusions Reference
Effect of grazing on antioxidant characteristics of sheep milk was investigated Grazing improved the total antioxidant capacity of sheep milk [65]
Zingiber officinale and Beta vulgaris were added in yoghurt milk to improve the antioxidant capacity of herbal yoghurt of buffalo, cow and goat milk yoghurt Supplementation of yoghurt milk with Zingiber officinale and beta vulgaris improved the 2,2 diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power in yoghurts [113]
2,2 diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of milk along with conventional methods such as peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, loss of vitamins A & E 2,2 diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays provided useful information regarding antioxidant capacity of milk [72]
A study was to analyze the antioxidant capacity of yoghurts, acidophillus milks, butter milk and vegetable flavored fermented milk were analyzed for their antioxidant potential Yoghurt and kefir were characterized by the highest antioxidant activity. The presence of probiotic Lactobacillus casei strains in the product positively improved the ferric reducing antioxidant power. [114]
A study was conducted to estimate the effect of cow feed supplementation by carrots on the βcarotene and α-tocopherol concentration in butter oil At the same time it contributed in more stable β-carotene, as well as 30% higher α-tocopherol concentration (P < 0.05) [115]
A study was undertaken to assess the effect of betel leaves (Piper betel Linn) extract on the physico-chemical, sensory and antioxidant properties of khoa made from cow milk and stored under room temperature Free fatty acids levels were well within the prescribed limit because of antioxidant properties exhibited by the aqueous extract of betel leaves. From the study, it was concluded that khoa with 0.5 aqueous extract of betel leaves restricted the production of free fatty acid compared to control due to antioxidant property of betel leaves [116]
the antioxidant properties of kefir produced from goat milk with kefir grains were investigated using total phenolic contents,,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assays Antioxidant capacity of kefir was more than parent milk. [117]
Antioxidant properties of milk oligosaccharides from various ruminants were studied The result suggests that milk oligosaccharides derived from certain ruminant species could be used as natural antioxidants and further studies can be done to elucidate the role of milk oligosaccharides as a functional food and potential drug [118]
The effect of Pediococcus pentosaceus on antioxidant characteristics of probiotic yoghurt was studied in cow, goat and camel milk Results evidence that antioxidant of goat milk yoghurt was 93% as compared to 86 in camel milk. These results suggested that antioxidant characteristics of yogurt can be enhanced by probiotic bacteria [119]
Cow milk was fermented by Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus delbeurkii Antioxidant capacity of milk fermented with Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus delbeurkii were 21.91 and 29.7% [120]
A study examined the effect of fish oil, Opal linseed and Szafir linseed on the antioxidants of Polish Holstein Friesian cow’s milk The highest level of α-tocopherol was found in fish oil + Opal linseed group at the 21st day of supplementation. Total antioxidative status increased in all experimental groups; however, the highest peak was recorded in fish oil + Szafir linseed and Szafir linseed group [121]
Impact of Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp.bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus or Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Lactobacillus fermentum on antioxidant capacity of bovine milk and whey were investigated Bacterial strains improved the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, Inhibition of superoxide anions, lipid oxidation and reduces the atherogenesis in humans [122]
Effect of supplementation of Pirotski Kachkaval by ethanolic extract of Kitaibelia vitifolia on antioxidant characteristics were investigated supplementation of Pirotski Kachkaval cheese by ethanolic extract of Kitaibelia vitifolia raised the antioxidant capacity of cheese [123]
Antioxidant characteristics of ice cream was increased by partially replacing the sucrose with sugarcane juice Addition of sugarcane juice in ice cream increased the total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity of ice cream [124]
Interesterified blends of butter oil and Moringa oleifera oil were characterized for antioxidant capacity and storage stability Phenolic compounds of Moringa oleifera oil enhanced the antioxidant perspectives and storage stability of butter oil in long term storage [125]
Impact of supplementation of ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera on storage stability of butter in refrigeration condition was investigated Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera at 600 ppm may be used for reasonable storage stability of butter at refrigeration temperature with acceptable sensory characteristics [126]
Effect of almond (Prunis dulcis) peel extract was determined on antioxidant characteristics of whey butter Addition of 400 ppm ethanolic extract of almond peel increased the total phenolic contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity [127]
Gouda cheese was supplemented with mango (Mangifera indica L.) oil to improve the antioxidant characteristics Supplementation of mango kernel oil increased the total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide free radical scavenging activity and inhibited the lipid oxidation [128]
Influence of intereterified Moringa oleiefera oil on oxidative stability of ice cream was studied Addition of interesterified Moringa oleifera oil significantly improved the oxidative stability of ice cream [129]
The main objective of this study was to raise the antioxidant characteristics of cheddar cheese of chia oil. Cheddar was supplemented with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil from 2.5 to 10% Supplementation of cheddar cheese with chia oil increased the antioxidant capacity of cheddar cheese [130]
Antioxidant characteristics of milk were enhanced by Hypotrigona squamuligera honey Fortification of milk with Hypotrigona squamuligera honey inhibited 2,2-diphenyl- 1picrylhydrazyl free radicals with lower peroxide value [131]