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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of participants according to DKD and DR

From: Are blood lipids associated with microvascular complications among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients? A cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China

Variable DKD   DR
  No (nd=2472) Yes (nd=1226) P e No (nd=1055) Yes (nd=319) P f
Gender (male), n (%) 1086(43.9) 518(42.3) 0.332h 442(41.9) 142(44.5) 0.407 h
Age (years), mean ± SD 66.8 ± 8.1 69.1 ± 8.7 < 0.001g 65.7 ± 7.4 64.8 ± 7.6 0.045 g
Current smoker, n (%) 443(17.9) 172(14.0) 0.003 h 162(15.4) 66(20.7) 0.025 h
Family history of diabetes mellitus, n (%) 703(29.8) 345(29.7) 0.934 h 372(37.2) 119(38.6) 0.649 h
Duration of diabetes mellitus(years), mean ± SD 8.8 ± 6.1 9.8 ± 6.6 < 0.001 g 8.1 ± 5.7 11.2 ± 6.6 < 0.001 g
Current medical treatment, n (%)
 Without medicine 209(9.1) 96(8.4) < 0.001 h 50(5.4) 7(2.4) < 0.001 h
 Oral medicine 1769(77.1) 847(73.7)   775(83.0) 210(71.2)  
 Insulin 134(5.8) 113(9.8) 45(4.8) 23(7.8)
 Oral medicine + insulin 181(7.9) 93(8.1) 64(6.9) 55(18.6)
Hypertension, n (%) 1789(72.4) 1012(82.5) < 0.001 h 795(75.4) 245(76.8) 0.598 h
CAD, n (%) 253(10.2) 155(12.6) 0.028 h 98(9.3) 39(12.2) 0.125 h
Stroke, n (%) 189(7.6) 122(10.0) 0.017 h 98(9.3) 32(10.0) 0.691 h
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 25.2 ± 3.2 25.7 ± 3.5 < 0.001 g 25.3 ± 3.2 25.5 ± 3.2 0.460 g
SBP (mmHg), mean ± SD 134.4 ± 15.1 139.0 ± 18.0 < 0.001 g 137.1 ± 17.3 140.4 ± 19.0 0.004 g
DBP (mmHg), mean ± SD 79.0 ± 8.3 79.1 ± 8.7 0.720 g 79.1 ± 8.7 78.3 ± 9.1 0.189 g
HbA1c (%), mean ± SD 7.0 ± 1.3 7.5 ± 1.7 < 0.001 g 7.0 ± 1.2 7.6 ± 1.5 < 0.001 g
TC (mmol/L), mean ± SD 4.7 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 1.0 0.266 g 4.5 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 1.2 0.164 g
TG (mmol/L), mean ± SD 1.6 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.1 < 0.001 g 1.6 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 0.9 0.193 g
LDL-C (mmol/L), mean ± SD 2.6 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 1.0 0.613 g 2.7 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 0.9 0.153 g
HDL-C (mmol/L), mean ± SD 1.4 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 < 0.001 g 1.4 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 0.217 g
TG/HDL-C, mean ± SD 1.3 ± 1.2 1.4 ± 1.2 < 0.001 g 1.3 ± 1.1 1.2 ± 1.0 0.366 g
Non-HDL-C (mmol/L), mean ± SD 3.3 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.0 0.002 g 3.2 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 1.1 0.294 g
Non-HDL-C/ HDL-C, mean ± SD 2.6 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.1 < 0.001 g 2.5 ± 1.0 2.5 ± 1.0 0.883 g
eGFR a(ml·min− 1·(173m2)− 1), mean ± SD 102.4 ± 26.3 90.0 ± 32.2 < 0.001 g 102.5 ± 30.1 105.4 ± 31.2 0.147 g
UACR b (mg/g), n (%)
 <30 2092(100) 108(9.0) < 0.001 h 688(69.0) 181(59.9) 0.010 h
 30-300 0(0) 967(80.7)   274(27.5) 104(34.4)  
 >300 0(0) 123(10.3) 35(3.5) 17(5.6)
DRc, n (%) 190(20.8) d 125(28.2) 0.003 h
  1. CAD coronary heart disease, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, UACR urinary albumin creatinine ratio, DR diabetic retinopathy
  2. a:eGFR was calculated using the formula of Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula: eGFR (ml·min-1·(1.73m2)-1)= 186 ×CRE (mg/dl)-1.154 ×age-0.203(×0.742,if female)
  3. b: UACR was measured on a single random urine sample and was calculated from urinary albumin creatinine ratio
  4. c: DR was defined based on the International Clinical Grading Standards of Diabetic Retinopathy (2002) by ophthalmologist according to the retinal photographs. The results were categorized into two levels: with DR or without DR
  5. d: Missing values weren’t imputed into the study database or case-wise deleted; therefore, the number of respondents included in analysis differed by variable of interest
  6. e: Participants with DKD in comparison to those without DKD
  7. f:Participants with DR in comparison to those without DR
  8. g:using t test
  9. h:using Chi-square test