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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study subjects

From: Eicosapentaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio and weight loss during hospitalization for glycemic control among overweight Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective observational study

  All subjects Lowest quartile Low quartile High quartile Highest quartile
M/F (n) 82/60 19/18 18/17 23/13 22/12
Age (years) 62.2 ± 10.6 55.6 ± 9.6 59.3 ± 11.8 65.5 ± 8.6† 68.9 ± 6.5†
Duration of type 2 diabetes (years) 12.6 ± 9.4 10.1 ± 8.7 11.3 ± 8.4 13.7 ± 9.7 15.5 ± 10.2
Hospital stay (days) 12.2 ± 2.8 13.0 ± 3.5 11.7 ± 2.4* 12.4 ± 2.9 11.8 ± 2.2†
Diet calorie (kcal) 1546 ± 183 1576 ± 205 1529 ± 171 1544 ± 176 1532 ± 181
BMI on admission (kg/m2) 26.3 ± 5.9 27.2 ± 5.6 26.8 ± 6.2 25.2 ± 6.7 26.1 ± 4.8
Body weight on admission (kg) 68.6 ± 17.0 72.5 ± 18.0 70.0 ± 18.0 64.5 ± 16.4 67.1 ± 15.0
HbA1c on admission (%) 9.8 ± 2.1 10.6 ± 2.4 9.4 ± 1.8* 9.8 ± 2.0* 9.4 ± 2.0
GA on admission (%) 25.4 ± 7.9 26.0 ± 7.7 23.2 ± 7.5 27.8 ± 9.3 24.4 ± 6.5
BMI at discharge (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 5.5 26.3 ± 5.3 26.0 ± 6.0 23.9 ± 6.1 25.2 ± 4.6
Body weight at discharge (kg) 66.0 ± 16.2 70.2 ± 17.2 67.9 ± 17.4 61.1 ± 16.6 64.7 ± 14.3
GA at discharge (%) 21.9 ± 5.6 22.1 ± 5.0 19.9 ± 5.4 24.2 ± 6.9 21.3 ± 4.5
EPA (μg/mL) 60.1 ± 32.0 31.8 ± 11.0 47.9 ± 13.6† 63.9 ± 17.5† 99.2 ± 32.8†
AA (μg/mL) 208.5 ± 54.8 232.0 ± 58.0 223.3 ± 63.1 198.0 ± 43.9* 178.7 ± 33.7†
EPA/AA 0.31 ± 0.19 0.14 ± 0.03 0.22 ± 0.02† 0.32 ± 0.05† 0.57 ± 0.19†
Retinopathy (N/S/P) 96/29/17 22/10/5 24/4/7 26/8/2 24/7/3
Neuropathy (n) 54 10 10 19 15
Nephropathy (Stage 1/2/3/4) 91/36/13/2 22/13/1/1 20/7/8/0 26/9/1/0 23/7/3/1
Treatment for diabetes (n)
 Insulin/SU/Glinides/TZD 44/39/10/31 11/11/1/7 10/5/5/6 13/8/2/6 10/15/2/12
 BG/α-GI/DPP-4I 66/26/73 25/6/16 13/7/20 10/6/17 18/7/20
 SGLT2I/GLP1RA 19/13 8/7 6/1 2/3 3/2
 Treatment for dyslipidemia (n) 118 23 35 26 34
 Treatment for hypertension (n) 69 19 12 15 23
  1. Data are shown as mean ± SD. *: P < 0.05 compared to category of lowest quartile adjusted for age and sex except age. †: P < 0.01 compared to category of lowest quartile adjusted for age and sex except age. BMI body mass index, GA glycoalbumin, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, AA arachidonic acid, N/S/P none/simple/pre or proliferative, SU sulfonylureas, TZD thiazolidinedione, BG biguanide, α-GI alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, DPP-4I dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, SGLT2I sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitors, GLP1RA glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist