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Table 2 Associations with self-reported depression for all 292 T1D patients and gender specifically

From: Lower HDL-cholesterol, a known marker of cardiovascular risk, was associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: a cross sectional study

  Depression (HADS ≥8p)
  All
N = 292
Men
N = 162
Women
N = 130
Controlled for antidepressants Controlled for antidepressants
No Yes Yes Yes
  COR P AOR P a AOR P a AOR P a AOR P a
Gender (women) 1.1 (0.5–2.3) 0.80 1.3 (0.6–3.0) 0.48 1.1 (0.5–2.7) 0.79
Age (per year) 1.03 (1.00–1.07) 0.081 1.05 (1.01–1.10) 0.012 1.05 (1.00–1.09) 0.028 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 0.22
Diabetes duration (per year) 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 0.50
High HbA1c (> 70 mmol/mol) 2.6 (1.2–5.6) 0.015 2.5 (1.1–5.5) 0.025 2.1 (0.9–4.9) 0.092 2.9 (0.8–10.2) 0.098
Total cholesterol (per mmol/l) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.16
Triglycerides (per mmol/l) 1.3 (0.9–1.9) 0.21
HDL-cholesterol (per mmol/l) 0.2 (0.1–0.8) 0.016 0.2 (0.05–0.6) 0.007 0.2 (0.04–0.6) 0.007 0.2 (0.03–1.2) 0.083
LDL-cholesterol (per mmol/l) 0.9 (0.5–1.4) 0.55
Hs-CRP c (per mg/l) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) 0.49
Abdominal obesity 1.3 (0.5–3.4) 0.53
BMI (kg/m2) (4 weight classes) 0.29
SBP (per mm Hg) 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.95
DBP (per mm Hg) 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.86
Hypoglycemia (severe episodes) 1.6 (0.3–7.7) 0.54
Smoking 2.0 (0.7–5.8) 0.19
Physical inactivity (<  0.5 h/week) 1.8 (0.6–5.0) 0.29
Physical activity (4 levels) 0.52
Clinical psychiatric diagnosis 10.8 (4.7–24.8) < 0.001
Antidepressants 9.6 (3.7–24.6) < 0.001 8.1 (3.0–21.9) < 0.001 10.6 (2.8–40.3) 0.001 5.8 (1.4–23.9) 0.014
LLD 1.02 (0.5–2.2) 0.96
AHD 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 0.67
Insulin and OAD 0.5 (0.1–4.1) 0.54
  1. aMultiple logistic regression analysis (Backward: Wald). All (not controlled for antidepressants)/all (controlled for antidepressants)/men/women: Hosmer and Lemeshow Test: 0.912 / 0.376/0.265/0.921; Nagelkerke R Square: 0.121/0.223/0.132/0.236