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Table 1 Subgroup analysis of dietary total fat and major fat subclasses and risk of cardiovascular disease

From: Dietary total fat, fatty acids intake, and risk of cardiovascular disease: a dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies

  Dietary total fat Trans fat Saturated fatty acid Monounsaturated fatty acid Polyunsaturated fatty acid
N HR(95%CI) I2 (%) N HR(95%CI) I2 (%) N HR(95%CI) I2 (%) N HR(95%CI) I2 (%) N HR(95%CI) I2 (%)
Overall 45 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 54.0 24 1.14 (1.08–1.21) 26.1 56 0.97 (0.93–1.02) 56.8 43 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 50.3 45 0.97 (0.93–1.00) 55.8
Follow-up duration (years)
 < 10 15 0.97 (0.88–1.08) 49.0 10 1.20 (1.10–1.30) 0.0 19 0.97 (0.89–1.05) 48.8 12 0.94 (0.81–1.08) 51.3 15 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 34.0
 ≥ 10 30 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 57.0 14 1.11 (1.02–1.19) 38.2 37 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 60.9 31 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 50.5 30 0.95 (0.91–0.99) 62.4
Geographical location
 America 23 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 63.2 17 1.13 (1.06–1.21) 24.2 24 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 58.8 20 0.94 (0.88–1.02) 59.7 20 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 60.5
 Europe 14 1.00 (0.93–1.08) 50.2 7 1.16 (1.04–1.31) 40.0 21 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 49.5 16 1.01 (0.95–1.06) 42.8 18 1.01 (0.98–1.05) 27.6
 Asia 6 1.01 (0.80–1.28) 27.6 0 9 0.84 (0.73–0.97) 42.3 5 0.90 (0.64–1.27) 33.3 5 1.09 (0.86–1.39) 0.0
Adjust for age
 Yes 32 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 48.4 16 1.13 (1.03–1.23) 35.1 43 0.97 (0.92–1.02) 57.9 30 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 42.7 33 0.99 (0.95–1.02) 48.9
 No 13 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 53.0 8 1.16 (1.06–1.28) 9.5 13 0.99 (0.89–1.09) 53.5 13 0.95 (0.85–1.06) 51.2 12 0.91 (0.81–1.03) 43.3
Adjust for sex
 Yes 8 1.01 (0.93–1.09) 61.8 6 1.07 (0.96–1.69) 0.2 21 0.94 (0.87–1.02) 72.6 13 0.96 (0.92–1.01) 63.2 14 1.00 (0.94–1.05) 9.1
 No 22 1.00 (0.96–1.04) 43.2 18 1.15 (1.08–1.23) 30.4 35 1.00 (0.94–1.05) 37.4 30 0.95 (0.86–1.06) 42.7 31 0.96 (0.91–1.01) 64.8
Adjust for alcohol
 Yes 12 0.99 (0.92–1.07) 59.5 20 1.13 (1.06–1.19) 24.5 41 0.97 (0.92–1.02) 51.7 29 0.98 (0.93–1.02) 47.5 30 0.96 (0.92–1.01) 64.8
 No 33 0.97 (0.92–1.01) 46.6 4 1.30 (1.06–1.61) 23.2 15 0.99 (0.90–1.08) 60.7 14 0.93 (0.85–1.02) 58.2 15 0.99 (0.93–1.01) 18.4
Adjust for energy intake
 Yes 32 0.96 (0.92–1.01) 62.0 18 1.16 (1.08–1.25) 26.3 40 0.96 (0.91–1.02) 64.5 30 0.96 (0.90–1.02) 57.2 31 0.95 (0.89–1.01) 54.0
 No 13 1.00 (0.94–1.06) 12.4 6 1.09 (1.00–1.19) 11.1 16 1.01 (0.95–1.08) 6.0 13 1.00 (0.97–1.03) 12.9 14 1.01 (0.98–1.04) 27.2
Adjust for physical activity
 Yes 33 1.00 (0.93–1.08) 56.1 19 1.14 (1.06–1.22) 38.3 43 0.96 (0.92–1.01) 49.8 31 0.94 (0.88–1.00) 42.2 32 0.97 (0.91–1.03) 59.5
 No 12 1.02 (0.99–1.04) 22.2 5 1.15 (1.02–1.30) 0.0 13 1.01 (0.91–1.12) 60.6 12 1.02 (0.98–1.06) 41.5 13 1.01 (0.99–1.02) 0.0
Adjust for smoking
 Yes 41 0.97 (0.92–1.01) 57.0 22 1.15 (1.08–1.23) 28.0 52 0.97 (0.92–1.01) 58.3 40 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 51.8 42 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 58.0
 No 4 1.01 (0.94–1.08) 0.0 2 1.08 (0.98–1.20) 0.0 4 1.05 (0.95–1.16) 1.0 3 1.08 (0.80–1.46) 33.1 3 0.88 (0.67–1.15) 0.0
Adjust for body mass index
 Yes 35 0.96 (0.91–1.01) 56.4 23 1.14 (1.07–1.21) 29.4 43 0.97 (0.91–1.02) 58.1 36 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 50.3 37 0.96 (0.93–1.01) 59.1
 No 10 0.99 (0.93–1.06) 48.1 1 1.14 (0.97–1.35) 13 0.99 (0.92–1.07) 55.6 7 0.93 (0.80–1.07) 51.0 8 1.01 (0.87–1.17) 39.8
  1. Abbreviation: HR hazards ratio