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Table 3 Dietary survey of intake of ARA, EPA and DHA in adult humans (> 1000 participants in a study and from January 2001)

From: Intake of arachidonic acid-containing lipids in adult humans: dietary surveys and clinical trials

Country Participant Dietary surveyc LCPUFA intake (mg/day)d Ref.
Sexa Age (y)b Other classification N ARA EPA DHA
Europe
 Finland M&F 30–49 1212 FFQ 95 ± 0.84e 160 ± 3.1e 420 ± 8.7e [31]
50-79 980 97 ± 1.1e 190 ± 4.6e 510 ± 13e  
 France M 45–63 2099 ten 24-h DR 204 ± 66 150 ± 112 273 ± 191 [24]
F 35–63 2785 152 ± 49 118 ± 94 226 ± 171  
 Germany M 45–65 Heidelberg 1013 24-h recall 230 ± 250 100 ± 300 190 ± 480 [32]
  Potsdam 1032 230 ± 250 130 ± 380 210 ± 490  
F 35–64 Heidelberg 1078 160 ± 190 70 ± 230 140 ± 330  
  Potsdam 898 140 ± 160 80 ± 230 140 ± 280  
 Spain F 20–79 1865 FFQ 290 ± 110 220 ± 90 300 ± 120 [33]
 United Kingdom M&F 16–79 1455 FFQ 9f 290f 380f [25]
North America
 United States F > 45 Health Professional 37,547 FFQ 70f 20f 60f [34]
 United States M&F > 30 2837 FFQ 120 ± 80 45 ± 50 82 ± 73 [35]
 United States F < 65 1500 FFQ 70 ± 60 40 ± 50 90 ± 90 [36]
 United States &Canada M&F > 30 Nonvegetarian 33,634 FFQ 84 ± 0.3e ndg 182 ± 1.2e [37]
  Semi-vegetarian 4042 27 ± 0.7e nd 70 ± 3.6e  
  Pesco vegetarian 6583 44 ± 0.6e nd 187 ± 2.8e  
  Lacto-ovo vegetarian 21,799 13 ± 0.3e nd 34 ± 1.5e  
  Strict vegetarian 5694 3 ± 0.6e nd 18 ± 3e  
Africa, Asia and Oceania
 Australia M > 19 5081 24-h recall 191 ± 2e 91 ± 3e 117 ± 5e [38]
F > 19 5770 117 ± 2e 60 ± 2e 83 ± 3e  
 China F 40–70 74,943 FFQ 50f ndh ndh [39]
 Japan M 40–49 241 3-day DR 179 ± 66 233 ± 211 437 ± 331 [40]
50–59 268 185 ± 64 368 ± 296 662 ± 476  
60–69 262 182 ± 63 403 ± 263 718 ± 422  
70–79 243 171 ± 64 390 ± 257 692 ± 437  
F 40–49 263 153 ± 52 217 ± 185 414 ± 305  
50–59 259 148 ± 51 268 ± 202 487 ± 322  
60–69 261 149 ± 53 300 ± 196 532 ± 312  
70–79 245 144 ± 55 300 ± 219 525 ± 340  
 South Africa M > 35 Rural 333 FFQ 34f 38f 62f [41]
  Urban 393 102f 61f 101f  
F > 35 Rural 633 33f 33f 52f  
  Urban 591 94f 46f 83f  
  1. aM male, F female
  2. bMean or range
  3. cFFQ food frequency questionnaire, DR diet record
  4. dData are the mean ± SD without annotation. Original data are rounded to nearest mg
  5. eMean ± SE
  6. fMedian
  7. gnd not described
  8. hMedian of (EPA + DHA) is 70 mg/d