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Table 4 Dietary survey of intake of ARA, EPA and DHA in adult humans (< 1000 participants by DR or 24-h recall)

From: Intake of arachidonic acid-containing lipids in adult humans: dietary surveys and clinical trials

Country Participant Dietary Surveyc LCPUFA intake (mg/day)d Ref.
Sexa Age (y)b Other classification N ARA EPA DHA
Bangladeshi F 16–50 Mothers of children 2–4 y 455 24-h recall 40 30 30 [42]
Belgium F 18–39 641 2-day DR 56 ± 47 78 ± 156 131 ± 247 [43]
Brazil F 18–35 Pregnant women 41 24-h recall 90 0.2 20 [44]
China F 27.0 Changzhou area 82 7-day DR 110 ± 40 50 ± 40 40 ± 60 [45]
27.8 Wenzhou area 20 140 ± 60 120 ± 130 180 ± 230  
Japan F 40–49 Spring season 71 7-day DR 134 ± 39 277 ± 13 755 ± 357 [46]
Korea M 30–85 107 3-day DR 135 ± 161 279 ± 690 172 ± 1114 [28]
F 30–85 117 99 ± 116 159 ± 271 235 ± 1479  
South Africa F 32.8 Urban Northern Cape 83 24-h recall 97 33 54 [47]
32.9 Urban coastal Western Cape 81 105 36 67  
34.8 Rural Limpopo Province 85 39 8 24  
United States M 49 Pakistan-origin 106 24-h recall 200 ± 700 30 ± 70 90 ± 20 [48]
49 India-origin 34 160 ± 140 10 ± 10 40 ± 40  
46 Bangladesh-origin 34 200 ± 140 200 ± 30 300 ± 400  
F 48 Pakistan-origin 117 200 ± 100 40 ± 100 100 ± 200  
49 India-origin 37 100 ± 100 40 ± 100 70 ± 200  
49 Bangladesh-origin 33 200 ± 100 300 ± 500 400 ± 800  
  1. aM male, F female
  2. bMean or range
  3. cFFQ food frequency questionnaire, DR diet record
  4. dData are the mean ± SD or median. Original data are rounded to nearest mg