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Table 2 Effects of plant sterol and Omega-3 supplementation on variables

From: A combination of omega-3 and plant sterols regulate glucose and lipid metabolism in individuals with impaired glucose regulation: a randomized and controlled clinical trial

Variables Placebo PS Omega-3 PS + Omega-3 Main effect of PS P value Main effect of Omega-3 P value Interaction P value
Post Difference Post Difference Post Difference Post Difference
Weight (kg) 68.97 ± 10.89 −0.85 ± 3.62 68.24 ± 8.14 −1.28 ± 9.14 68.13 ± 11.17 − 1.41 ± 1.91 67.35 ± 10.34 −2.26 ± 2.81 − 0.64 0.47 −0.77 0.38 −0.21 0.81
BMI (kg/m2) 26.13 ± 3.8 −0.33 ± 1.33 25.74 ± 4.24 −0.45 ± 3.43 25.19 ± 2.89 −0.50 ± 0.71 25.59 ± 3.55 −0.84 ± 1.02 − 0.23 0.47 − 0.28 0.39 − 0.11 0.73
Waistline (cm) 93.96 ± 9.99 −0.88 ± 5.84 90.77 ± 9.30 0.67 ± 6.04 88.50 ± 9.22 −1.90 ± 3.86 88.88 ± 10.32 −1.97 ± 4.21 0.74 0.40 −1.83 0.04* −0.81 0.35
Systolic pressure (mmHg) 130.57 ± 13.22 −1.79 ± 14.71 140.23 ± 18.33 2.80 ± 20.50 135.49 ± 12.87 −1.20 ± 16.82 139.44 ± 20.99 0.68 ± 20.85 3.235 0.32 − 0.77 0.81 −1.36 0.68
Diastolic pressure (mmHg) 82.5 ± 12.08 −1.57 ± 7.52 82.33 ± 9.44 −3.3 ± 14.66 79.94 ± 8.86 −5.97 ± 8.23 81.54 ± 10.87 −3.1 ± 8.76 0.57 0.75 −2.10 0.23 2.30 0.19
FPG (mmol/l) 6.43 ± 0.86 −0.06 ± 0.8 6.92 ± 1.01 0.47 ± 0.96 6.34 ± 1.06 −0.21 ± 1.19 5.56 ± 0.62 −0.94 ± 0.66 −0.1 0.55 −0.78 0.01** −0.63 0.01**
FINS (mU/L) 10.25 ± 3.9 −0.02 ± 3.67 9.57 ± 2.96 −0.58 ± 4.46 9.45 ± 3.87 −0.40 ± 2.25 8.12 ± 3.45 −2.09 ± 2.95 −1.125 0.06 −0.95 0.11 −0.57 0.33
HOMA-IR 2.93 ± 1.17 −0.03 ± 1.04 2.96 ± 1.18 0.06 ± 1.45 2.72 ± 1.34 −0.14 ± 0.70 2.00 ± 0.89 −0.96 ± 0.98 −0.365 0.05* −0.57 0.00** −0.46 0.01**
HbA1c (%) 6.35 ± 0.68 −0.15 ± 0.42 6.34 ± 0.92 0.13 ± 1.11 6.15 ± 0.78 −0.14 ± 0.55 6.01 ± 0.73 −0.35 ± 0.51 0.035 0.78 −0.24 0.05* −0.25 0.05*
TC (mmol/l) 5.23 ± 0.89 −1.73 ± 2.07 5.61 ± 0.95 0.18 ± 1.35 5.05 ± 0.70 −0.33 ± 0.48 4.96 ± 1.16 −0.39 ± 0.87 0.925 0.24 0.42 0.06 −0.99 0.06
TG (mmol/l) 1.82 ± 0.6 −0.23 ± 0.46 1.96 ± 1.27 −0.11 ± 1.32 1.95 ± 0.81 0.16 ± 0.95 1.73 ± 0.64 −0.34 ± 0.77 −0.19 0.01** 0.08 0.61 −0.31 0.01**
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.10 ± 0.22 −0.12 ± 0.12 1.16 ± 0.19 0.01 ± 0.30 1.21 ± 0.18 0.02 ± 0.19 1.27 ± 0.29 −0.1 ± 0.31 0.005 0.90 0.02 0.73 −0.13 0.05*
LDL-C (mmol/l) 3.02 ± 0.77 −0.09 ± 0.45 2.79 ± 0.78 0.22 ± 1.34 2.92 ± 0.55 −0.08 ± 0.78 2.83 ± 0.88 −0.14 ± 0.75 0.125 0.42 −0.18 0.25 −0.19 0.22
Hs-CRP (mg/L) 1.88 ± 0.53 0.4 ± 0.89 1.08 ± 0.46 −0.05 ± 0.39 0.95 ± 0.43 −0.15 ± 0.59 0.93 ± 0.38 −0.18 ± 0.59 −0.24 0.03* −0.34 0.03* 0.21 0.06
IL-6 (pg/ml) 3.05 ± 0.87 0.02 ± 1.61 2.49 ± 1.41 −0.33 ± 1.36 2.53 ± 1.37 −0.45 ± 1.7 2.45 ± 1.38 −0.4 ± 1.76 −0.15 0.59 −0.27 0.35 0.20 0.48
Body fat rate (%) 32.28 ± 8.84 −0.39 ± 3.9 28.43 ± 7.13 −0.83 ± 4.74 27.68 ± 5.82 −1.12 ± 4.75 28.11 ± 8.40 −1.76 ± 2.34 −0.54 0.44 −0.83 0.23 −0.1 0.89
Visceral fat rating 11.86 ± 4.49 −0.21 ± 1.55 11.03 ± 4.17 −0.43 ± 3.62 11.14 ± 4.38 −0.83 ± 1.25 11.27 ± 4.49 −0.8 ± 1.47 −0.095 0.79 −0.495 0.19 0.125 0.74
  1. Data were presented as mean ± SD or n (%). PS plant sterol, HT Height, BMI body mass index, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SD standard deviation. P* ≤ 0.05; P** ≤ 0.01