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Table 3 Effects of linolenic acid in vitro and in vivo clinical trials

From: The impact of sea buckthorn oil fatty acids on human health



Possible mechanism of action


Cardiovascular risk

Human in vivo study

Ability to form EPA and DHA

Reduction of plaque calcification

Maintenance of endothelial function

Reduction of blood pressure

Exhibition of antithrombotic, anti arrhythmic and anti-inflammatory effects

Rajaram (2004) [26]

Djoussé (2005) [27]

Zhao (2004) [10]

Takeuchi (2007)

Dry eye

Human in vivo study

Attenuation of the increase in tear film osmolarity and possible influence over the intensity of burning and redness symptoms

Larmo (2010) [28]

Fracture risk

Human in vivo study

Important role in bone turnover and maintenance of bone formation

Griel (2007) [29]

Rajaram (2014) [26]

García (2018) [30]