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Table 1 Participants characteristics

From: U-shaped association between low-density lipid cholesterol and diabetes mellitus in patients with hypertension

Characteristics Overall LDL-C, mmol/L
< 3.4 3.4 to 4.1 ≥4.1 P-value
No. of participants 9892 5038 2847 2007  
Demographics
 Age, y 62.9 ± 13.7 61.9 ± 14.3 62.9 ± 13.4 65.2 ± 12.4 < 0.001
 Male 4921 (49.7%) 2651 (52.6%) 1420 (49.9%) 850 (42.4%) < 0.001
 Smoking 2622 (26.5%) 1328 (26.4%) 773 (27.2%) 521 (26.0%) 0.615
 Alcohol use 1388 (14.0%) 686 (13.6%) 452 (15.9%) 250 (12.5%) 0.002
 BMI, kg/m2 24.8 ± 3.85 24.8 ± 3.89 24.8 ± 3.75 25.0 ± 3.90 0.028
 Waist circumference 88.0 ± 9.63 87.8 ± 9.79 88.0 ± 9.40 88.6 ± 9.52 0.016
Comorbidity
 Stroke 205 (2.1%) 134 (2.7%) 45 (1.6%) 26 (1.3%) < 0.001
 Coronary artery disease 161 (1.6%) 103 (2.0%) 26 (0.9%) 32 (1.6%) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 2341 (23.7%) 1298 (25.8%) 599 (21.0%) 444 (22.1%) < 0.001
 Dyslipidemia 5811 (58.7%) 2604 (51.7%) 1200 (42.1%) 2007 (100%) < 0.001
  TC ≥ 6.2 mmol/L 1995 (20.2%) 85 (1.7%) 344 (12.1%) 1566 (78.0%) < 0.001
  TG ≥ 2.3 mmol/L 2165 (21.9%) 1047 (20.8%) 647 (22.7%) 471 (23.5%) 0.021
  HDL-C < 1.0 mmol/L 1288 (13.0%) 888 (17.6%) 291 (10.2%) 109 (5.4%) < 0.001
Medication
 β-blockers 721 (7.3%) 439 (8.7%) 168 (5.9%) 114 (5.7%) < 0.001
 Calcium channel blockers 3139 (31.7%) 1730 (34.3%) 882 (31.0%) 527 (26.3%) < 0.001
 ACEI/ARB 4315 (43.6%) 2417 (48.0%) 1156 (40.6%) 742 (37.0%) < 0.001
 Statin 1898 (19.2%) 1415 (28.1%) 316 (11.1%) 167 (8.3%) < 0.001
Blood pressure, mm Hg
 Systolic 132 ± 16.2 131 ± 15.8 132 ± 16.3 133 ± 17.0 < 0.001
 Diastolic 80.8 ± 15.1 80.5 ± 14.1 81.4 ± 18.9 80.7 ± 11.1 0.04
Biomarkers
 TC,mmol/L 5.31 ± 1.16 4.51 ± 0.742 5.66 ± 0.558 6.83 ± 0.866 < 0.001
 TG,mmol/L 1.83 ± 1.58 1.82 ± 1.73 1.83 ± 1.37 1.88 ± 1.46 < 0.001
 LDL-C,mmol/L 3.40 ± 0.927 2.69 ± 0.483 3.72 ± 0.221 4.75 ± 0.586 < 0.001
 HDL-C,mmol/L 1.35 ± 0.365 1.32 ± 0.365 1.35 ± 0.318 1.41 ± 0.419 < 0.001
 FBG,mmol/L 5.35 ± 1.81 5.35 ± 1.79 5.27 ± 1.68 5.47 ± 2.05 0.007
 eGFR,ml/min/1.73m2 88.4 ± 26.0 89.4 ± 27.4 88.3 ± 24.8 86.0 ± 24.0 < 0.001
  1. BMI indicates body mass index; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin-receptor blockers; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol; FBG, fasting blood glucose; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate
  2. Values for categorical and continuous variables are given as numbers (percentages) and as means ± standard deviation, respectively