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Table 4 Association between LDL-C levels and diabetes mellitus among subgroups

From: U-shaped association between low-density lipid cholesterol and diabetes mellitus in patients with hypertension

subgroup LDL-C < 3.4 mmol/L 3.4 mmol/L ≤ LDL-C < 4.1 mmol/L LDLC ≥4.1 mmol/L
OR(95%CIs) P-value P-interaction OR(95%CIs) P-value P-interaction OR(95%CIs) P-value P-interaction
Age,y    0.022    0.119    0.648
≥60 0.778(0.642,0.944) 0.011   0.603(0.332,1.094) 0.096   1.316(1.045,1.656) 0.019  
< 60 0.827(0.657,1.040) 0.104   0.885(0.440,1.779) 0.731   1.45(1.044,2.012) 0.026  
Sex    0.771    0.358    0.197
Male 0.774(0.633,0.946) 0.012   0.913(0.48,1.735) 0.78   1.528(1.153,2.026) 0.003  
Female 0.862(0.703,1.057) 0.152   0.616(0.34,1.115) 0.11   1.202(0.949,1.524) 0.127  
Smoke    0.695    0.196    0.265
Yes 0.658(0.490,0.885) 0.006   1.131(0.489,2.615) 0.773   1.580(1.096,2.277) 0.014  
No 0.840(0.713,0.989) 0.036   0.619(0.372,1.029) 0.064   1.240(1.008,1.525) 0.041  
Alcohol consumption 0.333    0.395    0.399
Yes 0.645(0.428,0.972) 0.036   1.166(0.344,3.952) 0.805   1.489(0.849,2.612) 0.165  
No 0.831(0.713,0.967) 0.017   0.702(0.440,1.12) 0.137   1.285(1.063,1.555) 0.01  
CAD    0.293    0.114    0.639
Yes 0.967(0.265,3.531) 0.959   0.186(0,Inf) 1   0.195(0,Inf) 1  
No 0.802(0.695,0.926) 0.003   0.777(0.504,1.199) 0.255   1.32(1.102,1.581) 0.003  
Stroke    0.005    0.219    0.126
Yes 3.547(1.236,10.181) 0.019   0.000(0.000,50.287) 0.123   0(0,Inf) 1  
No 0.775(0.671,0.895) 0.001   0.763(0.494,1.179) 0.223   1.288(1.076,1.542) 0.006  
BMI, kg/m2 0.411    0.099    0.417
≥24 0.827(0.691,0.990) 0.039   0.764(0.448,1.302) 0.322   1.349(1.083,1.681) 0.008  
< 24 0.993(0.914,1.079) 0.869   0.597(0.273,1.306) 0.197   1.314(0.952,1.815) 0.097  
Statin 0.622    0.748    0.049
Yes 0.996(0.990,1.002) 0.207   1.000(0.969,1.031) 0.982   1.027(1.009,1.045) 0.003  
No 0.994(0.989,0.999) 0.010   0.992(0.981,1.004) 0.216   1.005(1.000,1.010) 0.034  
  1. LDL-C,low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, CAD, coronary artery disease, BMI, body mass index, OR, odds ratio; CIs, confidence Intervals
  2. model adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, history of CAD, stroke, consumption of β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme /angiotensin-receptor blockers, statin, BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, TG, HDL-C and estimated glomerular filtration rate