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Table 1 Mean ± S. D of the measured variables in the four studied groups

From: Bee pollen and propolis improve neuroinflammation and dysbiosis induced by propionic acid, a short chain fatty acid in a rodent model of autism

ParametersGroupsMean ± S.D.P valueaP valueb
IFNG (pg/ml)Control120.70 ± 167.85 0.046
PPA127.08 ± 192.571.000
Be pollen17.05 ± 26.480.024
Propolis23.23 ± 22.520.337
IL-1A (pg/ml)Control181.05 ± 65.52 0.035
PPA217.85 ± 76.890.531
Be pollen116.39 ± 40.720.109
Propolis168.96 ± 15.290.981
IL-6 (pg/ml)Control18.87 ± 4.69 0.091
PPA80.56 ± 63.580.050
Be pollen21.94 ± 25.930.336
Propolis21.58 ± 15.360.630
IL-10 (PG/ML)Control213.86 ± 212.98 0.050
PPA76.76 ± 36.440.015
Be pollen94.08 ± 28.870.022
Propolis231.39 ± 270.260.572
IL-12(P70) (pg/ml)Control82.07 ± 8.65 0.094
PPA71.03 ± 7.570.336
Be pollen70.11 ± 13.100.271
Propolis69.14 ± 7.350.214
VEGF (pg/ml)Control5.95 ± 2.43 0.010
PPA5.36 ± 2.640.575
Be pollen3.58 ± 0.850.025
Propolis3.41 ± 0.530.010
TNFA (pg/ml) cControl17.11 ± 1.39 0.003
PPA14.50 ± 0.910.140
Be pollen13.95 ± 3.270.057
Propolis11.72 ± 2.240.001
  1. a P value between each group and the control group
  2. b P value among all groups