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Table 1 Characteristic of study participants according to subjects with obesity/overweight and without obesity/overweight

From: Dietary fat quantity and quality in relation to general and abdominal obesity in women: a cross-sectional study from Ghana

VariableBMI (Kg/m2)PWC (cm)PWHtRP
≥25≤24.9≥80< 80≥0.50< 0.50
Age (years)38.1 ± 10.734.6 ± 11.20.0139.5 ± 10.233.9 ± 11.1< 0.00139.3 ± 10.733.3 ± 10.7< 0.001
Parity3.6 ± 2.12.9 ± 1.90.0083.9 ± 2.12.8 ± 1.9< 0.0013.9 ± 2.02.6 ± 1.9< 0.001
Household Size9.6 ± 5.110.8 ± 6.30.099.8 ± 5.310.8 ± 6.30.29.9 ± 5.610.8 ± 6.10.3
Asset scorec54.4 ± 4.452.8 ± 3.90.00354.7 ± 4.752.6 ± 3.7< 0.00153.9 ± 4.552.8 ± 3.80.03
Energy intake
(kcal/day)
2154.9 ± 663.72048.1 ± 694.70.22303.3 ± 677.51976.1 ± 665.4< 0.0012223.9 ± 672.81990.5 ± 679.80.005
Physical Activitya
 Low35(59.3)24(40.7) 38(64.4)21(35.6) 46(78.0)13(22.0) 
 Moderate42(26.9)114(73.1)< 0.00142(26.9)114(73.1)< 0.00152(33.3)104(66.7)< 0.001
 High12(19.4)50(80.6) 10(16.1)52(83.9) 11(17.7)51(82.3) 
Ethnicity
 Dagomba68(30.9)152(69.1)0.268(30.9)152(69.1)0.184(38.2)136(61.8)0.4
 Minorityb21(36.8)36(63.2) 22(38.6)35(61.4) 25(43.9)32(56.1) 
Marital Status
 Married83(33.6)164(66.4)0.0984(34.0)163(66.0)0.08103(41.7)144(58.3)0.02
 Single6(20.0)24(80.0) 6(20.0)24(80.0) 6(20.0)24(80.0) 
Woman Education
 No formal Education59(35.5)107(64.5) 64(38.6)102(61.4) 74(44.6)92(55.4) 
 Primary/Middle/JHS12(21.1)45(78.9)0.0111(19.3)46(80.7)0.0213(22.8)44(77.2)0.01
 SHS/Tertiary18(33.3)36(66.7) 15(27.8)39(72.2) 22(40.7)32(59.3) 
Husband Education
 No formal Education46(35.4)84(64.6) 45(34.6)85(65.4) 58(44.6)72(55.4) 
 Primary/Middle/JHS6(10.0)54(90.0)< 0.0018(13.3)52(86.7)< 0.0018(13.3)52(86.7)< 0.001
 SHS/Tertiary32(56.1)25(43.9) 32(56.1)25(43.9) 38(66.7)19(33.3) 
Occupation of woman
 Farmer16(38.1)26(61.9) 12(28.6)99(71.4) 15(35.7)27(64.3) 
 Trader48(31.6)104(68.4) 53(34.9)99(65.1) 68(44.7)84(55.3) 
 Salary/Service Sector9(29.0)22(71.0)0.86(19.4)25(80.6)0.38(25.8)23(74.2)0.1
 Housewife16(30.8)36(69.2) 19(36.5)33(63.5) 18(34.6)34(65.4) 
Occupation of husband
 Farmer29(33.0)59(67.0) 26(29.5)62(70.5) 33(37.5)55(62.5) 
 Salary/Service Sector21(28.4)43(71.6)0.321(28.4)53(71.6)0.0727(36.5)47(63.5)0.1
 Trader33(38.8)52(61.2) 37(43.5)48(56.5) 43(50.6)42(49.4) 
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation and number (%)
  2. a; Low (<600MET-minuts/week); Moderate (≥600 but < 3000 MET- minutes/week); High (≥3000 MET-minutes/weeks), p-trend (p); Test of trend was conducted using ANOVA with contrast function for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables. P < 0·05 was considered as statistically significant
  3. bGonja, gurusi, zambarama, Moshi, JHS (Junior High School); SHS (Senior High School, g/d: gram per day
  4. cAn ad hoc index of household asset score was computed from basically number of assets possessed from a list of items provided. A score of 1 point was given for an item owned. As for the main source of cooking energy, drinking water and toilet facility, 1 point was given for unimproved source and 2 points awarded for improved sources. The total score range was from 37 to 74 with higher scores suggesting enhanced economic strength. WC Waist circumference, BMI Body Mass Index, WHtR Waist to Height Ratio