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Table 2 Serum energy metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein parameters in cows with different body condition score (BCS)

From: Effects of body condition on the insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress of lactating dairy cows

Energy metabolism parameters2
Glucose, mmol/L3.
Insulin, mIU/L19.7b20.5b24.1a1.01< 0.01
Glucagon, pg/mL1031111045.90.58
NEFA, μmol/L119ab116b134a5.530.06
BHBA, mmol/L0.560.620.570.030.38
RQUICKI0.47a0.47a0.44b0.01< 0.01
Lipid and lipoprotein parameters3
Triacylglycerol, μmol/L32.2b34.3b50.1a5.590.06
Cholesterol, mmol/L6.576.466.450.200.90
VLDL, mmol/L1.80ab1.97a1.53b0.110.03
HDL-C, mmol/L0.430.470.460.020.33
apo A-I, mg/L294a280a242b12.90.02
apo B, mg/L174a176a155b5.10.01
  1. a-b Means within same row with different superscripts differ (P < 0.05)
  2. 1Low: BCS ≤ 2.75 (n = 12); Medium: 3.0 ≤ BCS ≤ 3.5 (n = 15); BCS ≥ 3.75 (n = 15)
  3. 2NEFA non-esterified fatty acid; BHBA β-hydroxybutyric acid; RQUICKI revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, calculated using the following equation (Leiva et al., 2014): RQUICKI 1/ [log glucose (mg/dL) + log insulin (μIU/mL) + log NEFA (mmol/L)]
  4. 3VLDL very low-density lipoprotein; HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; apo A-I apolipoprotein A-I; apo B apolipoprotein B