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Table 1 A summary of 24-h dietary recall questionnaire data in the studied schoolchildren in normal, Pre-HTN, and HTN groups

From: The intake assessment of diverse dietary patterns on childhood hypertension: alleviating the blood pressure and lipidemic factors with low-sodium seafood rich in omega-3 fatty acids

Food group(s) Food items (preparation method) Normal (n = 429) Pre-HTN (n = 47) HTN (n = 40)
Rconsuming (n)a MDI (g)b Energy (cal) Rconsuming (n)a MDI (g)b Energy (cal) Rconsuming (n)a MDI (g)b Energy (cal)
Bread and grains refined cereals (e.g., cake, white bread, pasta, biscuits, refined grain breakfast cereals, white rice, and pancakes), and whole cereal grains (e.g., wheat, corn, and rice) 429 325 ± 28 630 ± 72 47 318 ± 32 603 ± 82 40 320 ± 41 612 ± 35
Vegetables salad vegetables (e.g., broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, mushrooms, bell peppers, carrots, celery, cucumbers, lettuce, peas, spinach and tomatoes), and cooked/fried potatoes 297 214 ± 12 138 ± 27 32 224 ± 22 145 ± 41 28 215 ± 17 140 ± 29
Fruits berries (e.g., strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, and white and red currants), banana, citrus fruits (e.g., orange, tangrine, kiwi, and limon), apple, and fruit juices 298 337 ± 15 196 ± 52 32 341 ± 21 241 ± 27 25 334 ± 18 232 ± 10
Milk and dairy products cow milk, cream, butter, Feta cheese, yogurt, Doogh, and Kashk 110 422 ± 75 643 ± 36 8 412 ± 74 654 ± 45 10 420 ± 45 635 ± 33
Meat and egg products red meat (cooked/grilled), poultry meat (cooked/fried), and egg (boiled/pan-fried) 327 167 ± 11 240 ± 15 37 172 ± 13 254 ± 26 32 185 ± 9 267 ± 20
Seafoods fried/grilled fish (e.g., salmon, trout and tuna, and carp), and fried shrimp 112 376 ± 28 472 ± 51 20 291 ± 19 318 ± 37 8 252 ± 32 248 ± 28
Junk foods salted snacks, fried fast foods, sugary carbonated beverages, gum, candy, and sweet desserts 164 175 ± 8 342 ± 14 18 180 ± 6 351 ± 14 13 154 ± 11 302 ± 16
  1. a Rconsuming (n): Respondents with consumption (number), bMDI: Mean daily intake (gram per person consuming these foods)