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Table 1 Overview of lipid changes in common pulmonary conditions

From: Alveolar lipids in pulmonary disease. A review

Pulmonary Condition Lipid Process Reference
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS) Surfactant Insufficiency [1, 65, 74, 208, 225, 227, 232, 233, 235, 239, 240, 244, 245]
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS/RDS) Neutral Lipid Accumulation [51]
Surfactant Lipid Deficiency [27, 67,68,69, 247, 248]
Increased PL-Mediated Fibrin Polymerization [247]
Protective Role of Sphingolipid Signaling [249,250,251]
Acute Lung Injury (ALI) T2C Damage [134, 252, 253]
Surfactant Lipid Alterations [134, 242, 252, 253]
Dysregulated Lipid Transport [177, 178]
Protective Role of Sphingolipid Signaling [249,250,251]
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Surfactant Lipid Deficiency [6, 7, 67, 88,89,90,91, 95, 98,99,100,101,102,103,104]
Disrupted Reverse Lipid Transport [105, 106]
T2C Damage [92,93,94,95,96,97,98, 103, 107, 108]
Disrupted Alveolar Architecture [104]
Impaired AM Sphingolipid Signaling [110,111,112,113]
Vaping-Associated Lung Injury Intracellular and Luminal Lipid Accumulation [115,116,117,118,119,120, 194, 195]
Dysregulated AM Lipid Metabolism [196]
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) Surfactant Lipid Alterations [67, 129,130,131,132,133,134, 139,140,141, 143,144,145, 148]
Downregulated T2C Lipid Metabolism [125,126,127,128, 139,140,141, 148, 150]
T2C ER Stress [147,148,149, 151]
T2C Damage [135,136,137]
Dysregulated AM Lipid Metabolism [130, 138, 142]
Dysregulated Eicosanoid Production [148, 152,153,154,155,156, 158,159,160,161,162,163, 165,166,167,168]
Dysregulated Sphingolipid Signaling [169,170,171,172,173,174]
Decreased Alveolar Surface Area [129]
Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) Luminal Surfactant Accumulation [6, 63]
AM Cholesterol Accumulation [59,60,61,62,63,64, 191]
Pneumonia Surfactant Lipid Alterations [67, 175]
Dysregulated Lipid Transport [176]
Host-Pathogen Lipid Interaction [179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189,190]
Alveolar Cellular Damage [193]
Influenza Lipid-Mediated Host Defense [5]
Host-Pathogen Lipid Interaction [205, 206]
Tuberculosis (TB) Host-Pathogen Lipid Interaction [210, 211, 215,216,217,218]
Host Eicosanoids Differentially Affect Pathogenesis [212,213,214]
SARS and SARS-CoV-2 Diffuse Alveolar Damage [222, 223]
T2C Hyperplasia [221, 222]