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Table 1 Selected demographic and behavioral characteristics in 26,378 individuals from rural Hua County, China, 2012–2016

From: Gender heterogeneity in dyslipidemia prevalence, trends with age and associated factors in middle age rural Chinese

  Participants in this study
(N = 26,378)
n (%)
Male
(N = 12,925)
n (%)
Female
(N = 13,453)
n (%)
P value a
Age
 Mean (SD) 56.52 (6.88) 56.84 (6.87) 56.21 (6.88) < 0.001
Educational level
 Illiterate 8537 (32.36) 1901 (14.71) 6636 (49.33) < 0.001
 Primary or Middle School 15,252 (57.82) 9139 (70.71) 6113 (45.44)  
 High school or above 2589 (9.81) 1885 (14.58) 704 (5.23)  
Job
 Physical labor 25,909 (98.22) 12,544 (97.05) 13,365 (99.35) < 0.001
 Nonphysical work 469 (1.78) 381 (2.95) 88 (0.65)  
Body mass index c
  ≤ 24.0 kg/m2 9808 (37.18) 4811 (37.22) 4997 (37.14) 0.013
 24.1–27.9 kg/m2 10,869 (41.20) 5394 (41.73) 5475 (40.70)  
  ≥ 28.0 kg/m2 5618 (21.30) 2670 (20.66) 2948 (21.91)  
 Unknown b 83 (0.31) 50 (0.39) 33 (0.25)  
Blood pressure d
 No hypertension 12,019 (45.56) 5582 (43.19) 6437 (47.85) < 0.001
 Hypertension 14,212 (53.88) 7260 (56.17) 6952 (51.68)  
 Unknown b 147 (0.56) 83 (0.64) 64 (0.48)  
Water source e
 Deep well 17,475 (66.25) 8553 (66.17) 8922 (66.32) 0.802
 Shallow well or other 8903 (33.75) 4372 (33.83) 4531 (33.68)  
Smoking f
 None 17,269 (65.47) 3968 (30.70) 13,301 (98.87) < 0.001
 Moderate 6797 (25.77) 6657 (51.50) 140 (1.04)  
 Large amount 2265 (8.59) 2255 (17.45) 10 (0.07)  
 Unknown b 47 (0.18) 45 (0.35) 2 (0.01)  
Alcohol consumption g
 None 20,569 (77.98) 7196 (55.68) 13,373 (99.41) < 0.001
 Moderate 4351 (16.49) 4277 (33.09) 74 (0.55)  
 Large amount 1445 (5.48) 1441 (11.15) 4 (0.03)  
 Unknown b 13 (0.05) 11 (0.09) 2 (0.01)  
Fried food intake
 Seldom 18,767 (71.15) 8843 (68.42) 9924 (73.77) < 0.001
 Often 7611 (28.85) 4082 (31.58) 3529 (26.23)  
Spicy food intake
 Seldom 16,888 (64.02) 8093 (62.62) 8795 (65.38) < 0.001
 Often 9490 (35.98) 4832 (37.38) 4658 (34.62)  
Heartburn and regurgitation
 No 19,193 (72.76) 9220 (71.33) 9973 (74.13) < 0.001
 Yes 7185 (27.24) 3705 (28.67) 3480 (25.87)  
Self-reported history of diabetes
 No 25,834 (97.94) 12,684 (98.14) 13,150 (97.75) 0.027
 Yes 544 (2.06) 241 (1.86) 303 (2.25)  
TC level (mg/dL) h
 Mean (SD) 186.49 (35.67) 182.26 (34.90) 190.55 (35.93) < 0.001
TG level (mg/dL) i
 Mean (SD) 139.46 (111.86) 140.20 (129.57) 138.76 (91.68) 0.297
LDL-C level (mg/dL) h
 Mean (SD) 97.67 (25.27) 95.95 (24.84) 99.32 (25.57) < 0.001
HDL-C level (mg/dL) h
 Mean (SD) 52.73 (14.08) 51.92 (14.26) 53.50 (13.86) < 0.001
  1. a The Chi-square test and Student’s t test were used to compare demographic characteristics and behavioral factors in male and female subjects included in this study
  2. b The “Unknown” category was not included in the analysis
  3. c BMI was calculated as body weight in kilograms divided by the square of body height in meters (kg/m2). Subjects were categorized into three groups as BMI ≤ 24.0 (normal, coded as 0), 24.0 < BMI < 28.0 (overweight, coded as 1) and BMI ≥28.0 (obesity, coded as 2)
  4. d Blood pressure was measured for each participant. Subjects with systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg were defined as hypertensive and coded as 1; others were defined as non-hypertensive and coded as 0
  5. e Participants were asked about their drinking water source in the questionnaire. This question had two options: 1) deep well (> 100 m); 2) shallow well or others (≤100 m). Subjects selecting 1) were coded as 0, and subjects selecting 2) were coded as 1
  6. f Participants were asked whether they smoked, if so over what period of time, and quantity of smoking in the questionnaire. Total amounts of cigarette consumption were calculated as time period multiplied by quantity of smoking. The smoking group was categorized by quartiles of accumulative consumption. Subjects who didn’t smoke were coded as 0; subjects with consumption in Q1-Q3 were defined as moderate-smokers and coded as 1; subjects with consumption in Q4 were defined as heavy-smokers and coded as 2
  7. g Participants were asked whether they had drunk alcohol and if so over what period of time and in what quantity in the questionnaire. Total amounts of alcohol consumption were calculated as period of time multiplied by quantity of drinking. The alcohol drinking groups were categorized by quartiles of accumulative consumption. Subjects who didn’t drink were coded as 0; subjects with consumption in Q1-Q3 were defined as moderate drinkers and coded as 1; subjects with consumption in Q4 were defined as heavy drinkers and coded as 2
  8. h To convert cholesterol to mmol/L, multiply values by 0.0259
  9. i To convert triglycerides to mmol/L, multiply values by 0.0113