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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants of PURE-NWP-SA included in the present analyses (n = 633)

From: Associations of linoleic acid with markers of glucose metabolism and liver function in South African adults

  Total sample
Age (y) 53.0 ± 10.4
Men 240 (37.9)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.9 ± 6.9
 Obesity 143 (22.6)
Locality (urban) 325 (51.3)
Education levela
 No school or primary 247 (40.0)
 Secondary or higher 371 (60.0)
Smoking statusa
 Non-smoker 284 (44.9)
 Past or current smoker 348 (55.1)
Physical activitya
 Low 5 (0.8)
 Moderate 265 (43.4)
 High 341 (55.8)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 4.90 (4.40–5.40)
HbA1c (%) 5.60 (5.30–5.90)
Serum lipids (mmol/L)
 Total cholesterol 5.19 ± 1.31
 LDL cholesterol 3.03 ± 1.13
 HDL cholesterol 1.58 ± 0.64
 Triglycerides 1.13 (0.84–1.69)
Liver enzymes activity (U/L)
 Gamma-glutamyl transferase 45.8 (29.7–88.0)
 Alanine transaminase 17.0 (12.6–24.4)
 Aspartate aminotransferase 25.0 (18.8–35.0)
HIV-positivea 5 (0.8)
Dietary variables
 Daily total energy intake (kJ) 7356 ± 3031
 Available carbohydrate (en%) 58.8 ± 9.2
 Protein (en%) 12.4 ± 2.3
 Total fat (en%) 24.2 ± 8.7
  Saturated fatty acids (en%) 5.9 ± 3.0
  Monounsaturated fatty acids (en%) 6.4 ± 3.3
  Polyunsaturated fatty acids (en%) 7.4 ± 3.2
  n-3 fatty acids (mg/d)a 312 (193–474)
  Trans-fatty acids (g/d) 0.18 (0.07–0.49)
 Dietary cholesterol (mg/d) 149 (82–251)
 Dietary fiber (g/d) 20.4 ± 9.2
 Alcohol consumptionc (g/d) 0 (0–12.3)
  No 362 (57.2)
  Light 128 (20.2)
  Moderate 43 (6.8)
  High 100 (15.8)
  1. Values are mean ± SD, median (Q1-Q3), or n (%);
  2. PURE-NWP-SA Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology North-West Province South Africa
  3. a Missing values for 15 participants for education level, 1 participant for smoking status, 22 participants for physical activity level, 1 participant for HIV status and 1 participant for n-3 fatty acids;
  4. b Available for n = 613;
  5. c Alcohol consumption categories: ‘No’: 0 g/d; ‘Light’: > 0 to 10 g/d (women), > 0 to 20 g/d men; ‘Moderate’: > 10–20 g/d (women), > 20–30 g/d (men); ‘High’: > 20 g/d (women), > 30 g/d (men)