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Table 4 Associations of circulating linoleic acid with glucose metabolism and liver function markersa,b

From: Associations of linoleic acid with markers of glucose metabolism and liver function in South African adults

  Tertiles of circulating linoleic acid P-trendc β (95% CI) per 1 SD P
T1 T2 T3
Glucose metabolism markers
 Plasma glucose, mmol/L
  Model 1 4.94 (4.79, 5.09) 4.88 (4.73, 5.03) 4.82 (4.67, 4.97) 0.28 −0.009 (− 0.027, 0.009) 0.34
  Model 2 4.90 (4.75, 5.06) 4.88 (4.73, 5.03) 4.85 (4.70, 5.00) 0.62 −0.005 (− 0.024, 0.014) 0.59
 HbA1c, %
  Model 1 5.59 (5.50, 5.69) 5.63 (5.54, 5.73) 5.71 (5.61, 5.81) 0.10 0.009 (−0.002, 0.019) 0.10
  Model 2 5.61 (5.52, 5.71) 5.63 (5.53, 5.72) 5.69 (5.60, 5.79) 0.28 0.006 (−0.005, 0.016) 0.29
Liver function markers (subsample, n = 613)
 Serum GGT, U/L
  Model 1 85.5 (76.4, 95.7) 54.9 (49.1, 61.3) 38.7 (34.6, 43.3) < 0.001 −0.32 (−0.39, − 0.26) < 0.001
  Model 2 77.2 (69.1, 86.4) 55.4 (49.8, 61.7) 42.3 (37.9, 47.2) < 0.001 −0.25 (− 0.31, − 0.18) < 0.001
 Serum ALT, U/L
  Model 1 19.4 (18.0, 20.9) 17.3 (16.0, 18.6) 16.5 (15.3, 17.8) 0.004 −0.068 (− 0.112, − 0.024) 0.002
  Model 2 18.9 (17.5, 20.4) 17.3 (16.1, 18.7) 16.9 (15.6, 18.2) 0.05 −0.050 (− 0.096, − 0.003) 0.036
 Serum AST, U/L
  Model 1 31.5 (29.0, 34.3) 26.9 (24.7, 29.1) 23.9 (22.0, 25.9) < 0.001 −0.121 (− 0.168, − 0.073) < 0.001
  Model 2 30.2 (27.8, 32.8) 26.9 (24.9, 29.1) 24.8 (22.9, 26.9) 0.001 −0.090 (− 0.139, − 0.041) < 0.001
  1. Values for outcome variables in circulating linoleic acid tertiles are geometric means and 95% CI. Values for β (95% CI) are natural log-transformed values;
  2. ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, GGT gamma-glutamyl transferase
  3. a One standard deviation of circulating linoleic acid is 3.5% total fatty acids;
  4. b Multivariable models: Model 1: adjusted for age, sex; Model 2: model 1 plus education level, locality, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol intake, total energy intake, BMI;
  5. c P-values for trend were obtained by assigning median value of circulating linoleic acid and this value was modelled as continuous;