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Table 1 Effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on symptoms and functions in schizophrenia

From: Beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in schizophrenia: possible mechanisms

Trial Authors Omega-3 treatment Effects of omega-3 treatment ARR 95% CI RRR
EPA, DHA (mg/d) Intervention (Follow-up) ω3 level Symptoms (PANSS scores) Functions
T P N G GAF
Prodromal
1 Amminger et al. (2007) [118] EPA (800) + DHA (700) 12 weeks - - - 18.5% 4.6-32.4 87.7%
2 Amminger et al. (2010) [119] EPA (700) + DHA (400) 12 weeks
(40 weeks)
- 22.6% 4.8-40.4 82.2%
Amminger et al. (2015) [120] EPA (700) + DHA (400) 12 weeks
(6.7 years)
- 30.2% 10.1-50.4 75%
First-episode psychosis
1 Berger et al. (2008) [121] EPA (2000) 12 weeks - - - -    
Wood et al. (2010) [122] EPA (2000) 12 weeks - - - - -    
2 Pawełczyk et al. (2016) [48] EPA (1320) + DHA (880) 26 weeks - NS NS    
Pawełczyk et al. (2017) [123] EPA (1320) + DHA (880) 26 weeks - - -    
3 Robinson et al. (2019) [124] EPA (740) + DHA (400) 16 weeks - - - - -    
Chronic schizophrenia
1 Peet et al. (2001) [125] EPA or DHA (2000) 12 weeks NS - -    
2 Emsley et al. (2002) [126] EPA (3000) 12 weeks - - - - -    
3 Arvindakshan et al. (2003) [24] EPA (180) + DHA (120) 16 weeks - - -    
4 Sivrioglu et al. (2007) [127] EPA (180) + DHA (120) 16 weeks - - - - -    
5 Jamilian et al. (2014) [128] EPA (180) + DHA (120) 8 weeks - NS NS -    
  1. Abbreviations: 95% CI 95% Confidence Interval, ARR Absolute risk reduction, DHA docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3), EPA eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), G global subscale score, GAF global assessment of functioning scale, N negative subscale score, NS no significant difference, P Positive subscale score, PANSS Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, RRR Relative risk reduction, T total subscale score, - information not available, ↓ decrease, ↑ increase