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Table 1 Basic characteristics and nutrition intake values in placebo and test group at baseline and 12-week follow up

From: The cholesterol-lowering effect of unripe Rubus coreanus is associated with decreased oxidized LDL and apolipoprotein B levels in subjects with borderline-high cholesterol levels: a randomized controlled trial

  Placebo group (n = 38) uRC group (n = 39) Pa Pb
Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up
Age (year) 47.61 ± 1.98 47.03 ± 1.97 0.836  
Male/Female n, (%) 6 (15.8) / 32 (84.2)   13 (33.3) / 26 (66.7)   0.074  
Current smoker n, (%) 3 (7.9)   6 (15.4)   0.112  
Current drinker n, (%) 19 (50.0)   20 (51.3)   0.910  
Weight (kg) 61.13 ±1.63 60.93 ±1.68 62.44 ±1.91 62.33 ±1.87 0.605 0.582
Systolic BP (mmHg) 112.09 ±1.92 114.41 ±2.14 113.06 ±2.23 116.97 ±1.77 0.742 0.357
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 69.57 ±1.47 70.92 ±1.64 71.55 ±1.62 72.83 ±1.55 0.368 0.400
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.58 ±0.53 23.50 ±0.54 23.47 ±0.48 23.43 ±0.47 0.873 0.926
Waist hip ratio 0.88 ±0.01 0.88 ±0.01 0.89 ±0.01 0.89 ±0.01 0.257 0.219
Waist circumference (cm) 85.13 ±1.21 85.03 ±1.25 85.92 ±1.29 85.91 ±1.28 0.656 0.622
Hip circumference (cm) 96.96 ±0.96 96.91 ±0.97 96.42 ±0.85 96.37 ±0.84 0.675 0.672
Fat percentage (%) 30.34 ±1.05 30.42 ±1.07 28.21 ±0.95 28.71 ±0.95 0.136 0.235
Lean body mass (kg) 42.49 ±1.29 42.27 ±1.30 44.87 ±1.54 44.51 ±1.54 0.241 0.271
Estimates of daily nutrient intakes
 Basal metabolic rate (kcal/day) 1335.81 ±41.80 1331.31 ±42.98 1408.47 ±52.86 1405.88 ±51.97 0.288 0.275
 Total energy expenditure (kcal/day) 1926.81 ±42.43 1933.54 ±42.10 2027.71 ±50.36 2033.93 ±51.79 0.132 0.139
 Total calorie intake (kcal/day) 1946.27 ±37.67 1944.47 ±40.27 2065.92 ±48.75 2059.22 ±47.44 0.058 0.071
 Carbohydrate (%) 61.54 ±0.12 61.67 ±0.13 61.53 ±0.13 61.53 ±0.13 0.992 0.443
 Carbohydrate intake (g/day) 299.50 ±5.96 299.64 ±5.97 317.77 ±7.46 316.75 ±7.29 0.060 0.075
 Protein (%) 15.83 ±0.06 15.89 ±0.06 15.85 ±0.06 15.82 ±0.06 0.767 0.392
 Protein intake (g/day) 77.01 ±1.51 77.30 ±1.67 81.87 ±1.96 81.48 ±1.93 0.054 0.106
 Fat (%) 22.64 ±0.15 22.42 ±0.15 22.63 ±0.15 22.66 ±0.15 0.948 0.346
 Fat intake (g/day) 48.95 ±0.97 48.51 ±1.16 52.08 ±1.35 51.82 ±1.30 0.067 0.061
 Cholesterol intake (mg) 179.30 ±0.40 180.14 ±1.08 180.18 ±0.59 179.63 ±0.36 0.252 0.642
 Saturated fatty acid intake (mg) 6.03 ±0.23 6.08 ±0.24 6.51 ±0.27 6.44 ±0.25 0.173 0.301
 Monounsaturated fatty acid intake (mg) 10.05 ±0.39 10.08 ±0.39 10.74 ±0.44 10.68 ±0.39 0.245 0.286
 Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake (mg) 20.78 ±0.85 20.86 ±0.89 22.57 ±1.01 22.58 ±0.97 0.182 0.199
  1. Mean ± SE (Standard Error), Pa-values derived from chi-square test (non-continuous variables) or independent t-test at baseline between the placebo and the uRC group. Pb-values derived from independent t-test at 12-week follow up between the placebo and the uRC group