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Table 3 Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in the studied groups of rats (mg/dL), average ± standard deviation after 14, 28 and 42 days of different diets/protocols

From: Improvement in serum lipids and liver morphology after supplementation of the diet with fish oil is more evident under regular feeding conditions than under high-fat or mixed diets in rats

   SD n3 HFD HFD + n3 CA1 CA2
TC initially 87.8 ± 5.43 88.6 ± 6.17 89 ± 5.62 88.4 ± 8.47 88.1 ± 5.82 87.6 ± 5.60
14 days 90.9 ± 6.13 83.9 ± 4.12↓
(a)
111.8 ± 8.35↑↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
97.9 ± 6.45↑
(b)
(−)(−)(−)
97.8 ± 6.64↑
(b)
(−)(−)(−)
114.7 ± 8.62↑↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
28 days 93.375 ± 6.48 82.625 ± 4.89
(a)(a)
137.375 ± 12.73↑↑(b)(b)(b) 100.375 ± 7.61↑
(b)
(−)(−)(−)
111.5 ± 8.67↑↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
(−)
111.75 ± 8.71
(b)(b)(b)
(−)(−)(−)
42 days 94 ± 6.90 81.83 ± 5.91
(a)(a)
151.167 ± 10.09↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
115.667 ± 6.15↑↑
(b)(b)
(−)(−)(−)
103.167 ± 7.68
(−)
110.167 ± 8.06
(b)(b)
(−)(−)(−)
HDL-CT initially 50.5 ± 4.01 51.6 ± 4.76 50.9 ± 4.98 51.9 ± 4.15 52.7 ± 4.88 49.1 ± 5.67
14 days 49.8 ± 3.85 55.7 ± 5.51↑ (b) 49.7 ± 5.62 52.4 ± 6.82 52.8 ± 7.35 48.8 ± 5.57
28 days 52.625 ± 8.38 61.625 ± 3.89↑ (b) 41.75 ± 6.16↓ (a) 50.375 ± 5.58 (b) (+) 45.875 ± 5.28 (b)(b) 47.625 ± 6.59 (b)(b)
42 days 50.5 ± 6.77 63.83 ± 4.45
(b)(b)
40.33 ± 4.32
(a)
47.83 ± 4.71
(b) (+)
56 ± 3.16↑
(+)(+)(+)
50.67 ± 5.61
(b) (+)(+)
LDL-CT initially 27.3 ± 4.83 27.2 ± 4.28 26.7 ± 5.83 26.2 ± 7.05 26.4 ± 6.33 25.7 ± 2.83
14 days 28.1 ± 3.10 24.1 ± 3.31↓
(a)
34.4 ± 3.10↑↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
31.2 ± 3.33↑
(b)
(−)
31.2 ± 2.58↑
(b)
(−)
33.8 ± 2.90↑↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
28 days 27 ± 3.55 16.875 ± 5.38↓↓
(a)(a)(a)
45.625 ± 4.90↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
38 ± 4.14↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
(−)(−)
42 ± 4.57↑↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
41.125 ± 2.69↑↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
(−)
42 days 30.83 ± 2.86 13.67 ± 4.13
(a)(a)(a)
57.17 ± 4.96↑↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
49.17 ± 5.85↑
(b)(b)(b)
(−)
36.67 ± 5.28
(b)
(−)(−)(−)
40.33 ± 2.50
(b)(b)(b)
(−)(−)(−)
TG initially 64.8 ± 8.63 63.5 ± 7.37 65.6 ± 5.95 62.9 ± 3.96 62.7 ± 5.44 66.6 ± 4.43
14 days 66 ± 8.69 57.6 ± 4.09↓
(a)
75.4 ± 5.48↑↑
(b)(b)
70.9 ± 5.30↑↑ 71.7 ± 5.62↑↑ 75.6 ± 5.67↑↑
(b)(b)
28 days 67 ± 10.4 55.375 ± 6.05
(a)
90.625 ± 6.02↑↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
83.625 ± 6.82↑↑↑
(b)(b)
(−)
86.625 ± 11.67↑↑↑
(b)(b)
85 ± 9.40↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
(−)(−)(−)
42 days 65 ± 10.16 49.33 ± 6.4
(a)(a)
104 ± 7.56↑↑
(b)(b)(b)
91 ± 8.56
(b)(b)(b)
(−)
73 ± 4.52↓
(−)(−)(−)
83.33 ± 7.47
(b)(b)
(−)(−)(−)
  1. Legend:
  2. vs. 2 weeks previously: ↓ - decrease, 0.01 < P < 0.05; ↓↓ - decrease, 0.001 < P < 0.01; ↑ - increase, 0.01 < P < 0.05; ↑↑ - increase, 0.001 < P < 0.01; ↑↑↑ - increase, P < 0.001;
  3. vs. SD group: (a) - decrease, P < 0.05; (a)(a) - decrease, 0.001 < P < 0.01; (a)(a)(a) - decrease, P < 0.001; (b) - increase, P < 0.05; (b)(b) - increase, 0.001 < P < 0.01; (b)(b)(b) - increase, P < 0.001;
  4. For the HFD + n3, CA1, and CA2 groups, the Pvalues vs. the HFD group are shown: (−) - decrease, 0.01 < P < 0.05; (−)(−) - decrease, 0.001 < P < 0.01; (−)(−)(−) - decrease, P < 0.001; (+) - increase, 0.01 < P < 0.05; (+)(+) - increase, 0.001 < P < 0.01; (+)(+)(+) - increase, P < 0.001.