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Table 5 Adjusted odds ratio for the risk of low serum LDL concentrations by the haplotypea after covariate adjustments according to the patterns of lifestyles

From: A minor allele of the haplotype located in the 19q13 loci is associated with a decreased risk of hyper-LDL-cholesterolemia, and a balanced diet and high protein intake can reduce the risk

  Major
(n = 1782)
Heterozygote
(n = 1680)
Minor
(n = 301)
Gene-nutrient interaction
P value
Low balanced dietb 1 0.994 (0.869–1.136) 0.722 (0.570–0.914) 0.0246
High balanced diet 0.854 (0.769–0.948) 0.640 (0.540–0.759)
Low flour-rich dietc 1 0.876 (0.795–0.965) 0.540 (0.456–0.639) 0.6929
High flour-rich diet 0.881 (0.825–0.940) 0.596 (0.534–0.666)
Low mainly-rice dietd 1 0.930 (0.845–1.023) 0.622 (0.528–0.732) 0.1788
High mainly-rice diet 0.858 (0.804–0.917) 0.560 (0.501–0.626)
Low energye 1 0.917 (0.861 ~ 0.977) 0.687 (0.586 ~ 0.805) 0.2870
High energy 0.918 (0.799 ~ 1.056) 0.680 (0.529 ~ 0.873)
Low carbohydratef 1 0.898 (0.848 ~ 0.952) 0.678 (0.585 ~ 0.785) 0.1922
High carbohydrate 0.931 (0.765 ~ 1.134) 0.718 (0.515 ~ 1.002)
Low proteing 1 0.927 (0.834 ~ 1.031) 0.694 (0.576 ~ 0.836) 0.0059
High protein 0.933 (0.870 ~ 0.999) 0.671 (0.544 ~ 0.815)
Low fath 1 0.876 (0.713 ~ 0.993) 0.637 (0.527 ~ 0.770) 0.1690
High fat 1.034 (0.929 ~ 1.151) 0.734 (0.606 ~ 0.888)
Low alcohol drinkingi 1 0.898 (0.851 ~ 0.947) 0.645 (0.554 ~ 0.751) 0.3690
High alcohol drinking   0.910 (0.765 ~ 1.084) 0.868 (0.649 ~ 1.161)
Non- + former smoking 1 0.910 (0.862–0.962) 0.697 (0.608–0.800) 0.3436
Smoking 0.841 (0.717–0.987) 0.579 (0.440–0.762)
Low coffee intakej 1 0.933 (0.864 ~ 0.948) 0.679 (0.589 ~ 0.782) 0.0935
High coffee intake 1.139 (0.890 ~ 1.457) 0.762 (0.504 ~ 1.151)
Low physical activityk 1 0.876 (0.812 ~ 0.944) 0.609 (0.504 ~ 0.735) 0.1105
High physical activity 0.887 (0.698–1.127) 0.738 (0.610 ~ 0.970)
  1. aHaplotypes of APOE, PVRL2, TOMM40, EXOC3L2, and CD3EAP were generated by plink and they were divided into 3 categories (Major, Heterozygote and Minor haplotype groups) by the alleles (0, 1–2, and 3–4). Reference was the major haplotype allele
  2. Values represent odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals
  3. The cutoff points for dividing the values of each parameter into 2 groups were as follows: less than 75th percentile of the respective diet intakeb,c.d, less than estimated energy intakee, less than 13% proteinf, 70% carbohydrate (CHO)g, 15% fath, 20 g alcohol per dayi, less than 10 cups of coffee per weekj, and 1 h moderate activity per dayk. Multivariate regression models include the corresponding main effects, interaction terms of gene and main effects (energy and nutrient intake), and potential confounders such as BMI, residence area, gender, age, smoking, coffee, alcohol, physical activity and serum total cholesterol concentrations