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Table 4 Plasma levels of risk indicators of cardiovascular disease during the study period a

From: Effect of intermittent versus continuous calorie restriction on body weight and cardiometabolic risk markers in subjects with overweight or obesity and mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia: a randomized trial

Outcome Groups P-value b,c
CCR (n = 44) ICR (n = 44)
TG (mg/dL)
 Baseline 165.0 (126) 180.5 (115)  
 8-week 162 (85) d* 133 (92) ** 0.44
 Change e 16.0 (113) 23.5 (103) 0.49
Cholesterol (mg/dL)
 Baseline 190.1 ± 38.1 178.6 ± 30.3  
 8-week 175.7 ± 37.4 * 174.1 ± 30.9 0.57
 Change 14.4 ± 37.1 4.56 ± 33.8 0.19
LDL-C (mg/dL)
 Baseline 107.7 ± 29.0 98.4 ± 28.5  
 8-week 102.9 ± 29.4 103.4 ± 26.1 0.31
 Change 4.8 ± 26.2 −5.1 ± 29.1 0.09
HDL-C (mg/dL)
 Baseline 42.1 ± 10.6 39.1 ± 7.7  
 8-week 39.7 ± 9.3* 39.4 ± 6.7 0.28
 Change 2.4 ± 7.0 −0.3 ± 7.2 0.08
Total: HDL-C
 Baseline 4.7 ± 1.2 4.9 ± 1.4  
 8-week 4.6 ± 1.1 4.5 ± 1.0 0.73
 Change 0.1 ± 1.0 0.3 ± 1.5 0.67
TG:HDL-C
 Baseline 5.2 ± 3.0 5.9 ± 4.4  
 8-week 4.5 ± 2.4 4.2 ± 2.2 * 0.31
 Change 0.7 ± 3.1 1.7 ± 4.3 0.42
non-HDL -C
 Baseline 148.0 ± 36.7 139.5 ± 31.4  
 8-week 135.9 ± 34.7 * 134.7 ± 30.6 0.69
 Change 12.0 ± 35.4 4.8 ± 34.3 0.33
FBS (mg/dL)
 Baseline 89.5 (16) 88.0 (26)  
 8-week 91.0 (24) 88.0 (15) 0.26
 Change −1.0 (18) 0.0 (21) 0.04
Insulin (μIU/mL)
 Baseline 22.0 ± 9.7 18.2 ± 8.1  
 8-week 21.3 ± 11.2 16.01 ± 5.5 * 0.17
 Change 0.8 ± 6.5 2.1 ± 6.9 0.34
HOMA-IR
 Baseline 3.7 (3) 3.5 (3)  
 8-week 4.3 (3) 3.5 (2) * 0.03
 Change 0.0 (1) 0.3 (1) 0.03
Adiponectin (μg/mL)
 Baseline 8.6 ± 3.0 8.1 ± 3.0  
 8-week 8.6 ± 2.9 7.9 ± 3.0 0.30
 Change −0.1 ± 2.3 0.3 ± 2.4 0.50
ALT (IU/L)
 Baseline 28.2 ± 19.4 20.5 ± 10.9  
 8-week 26.7 ± 16.4 19.3 ± 8.2 0.12
 Change 1.4 ± 20.6 1.1 ± 11.1 0.82
AST (IU/L)
 Baseline 23.3 ± 11.0 19.0 ± 5.5  
 8-week 23.0 ± 9.7 19.0 ± 5.1 0.15
 Change 0.3 ± 11.8 0.0 ± 5.8 0.96
  1. aValues are mean ± SD or median (interquartile range)
  2. bThe 8-week values were analyzed using ANCOVA and including baseline values of each variable as a covariate in the model
  3. cChange from baseline values were assessed with independent t-tests or non-parametric Manne Whitney U-test
  4. dDifferences between baseline and post-intervention data were analyzed by the paired t-test. Significantly different from baseline: * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01
  5. eChange expressed as the difference between baseline minus week-8 values
  6. Abbreviations: ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, CCR Continuous calorie restriction diet, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [calculated as insulin × glucose/405], ICR Intermittent calorie restriction diet, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides