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Table 3 Biomarkers of oxidative stress

From: The impact of reactive oxygen species in the development of cardiometabolic disorders: a review

Markers of oxidative stress
 Lipid oxidation Malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), F2-isoprostanes, isolevuglandins, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and methylglyoxal.
 Protein/amino acid oxidation Protein carbonyls, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), advanced lipoxigenation end products (ALEs), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), 3-nitrotyrosine, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)
 DNA oxidation 8-oxo-2’ - deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG; 8OHdG), 5-chlorocytosine, 5-chlorouracil,
Markers of ROS generation
 Enzymatic Xanthine oxidase (XO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), nitric oxide synthase (NOS)
 Non-enzymatic Uric acid
 ROS-regulated transcription factors Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB)
Markers of antioxidant defense
 Enzymatic Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), Protein thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases [thioredoxin (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prxs)].
 Non-enzymatic Ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, polyphenols, bilirubin, albumin, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, glutathione (GSH).
 ROS-regulated transcription factors Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2)
 Others Asymmetric dimethyl L-arginine (ADMA)