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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies in the meta-analysis

From: Compositional alterations of gut microbiota in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients: a systematic review and Meta-analysis

First Author Year Location Diagnostic methods Numbers of NAFLD/Control Age, years Sex (Males, %) BMI, kg/m2 ALT, U/L Sample Microbiota detection method
NAFLD Control NAFLD Control NAFLD Control NAFLD Control
Caussy [17] 2019 USA Histology 42/51 NAFL54.0 ± 14.9NASH65.1 ± 9.8 45.9 ± 19.9 13 (31.0%) 15 (29.4%) NAFL31.1 ± 6.6NASH31.3 ± 6.1 26.2 ± 6.8 NAFL23.2 ± 11.2NASH45.0 ± 37.4 18.8 ± 8.8 Stool Sequencing
Chierico [18] 2016 Italy Not mentioned 53/62 NAFL 12.04 ± 2.8NASH 12.27 ± 2.5 Healthy 10.24 ± 2.5Obese 11.25 ± 2.7 32 (60.4%) 26 (41.9%) NAFL26.46 ± 4.43NASH27.42 ± 6.45 Healthy 17.59 ± 1.79Obese26.15 ± 4.38 NAFL32.3 ± 22.74NASH44.46 ± 16.73 HealthyNAObese 41.50 ± 47.70 Stool Sequencing
Jiang [19] 2015 China Histology or ultrasound 53/32 48.00 41.00 26 (49.1%) 5 (15.6%) 26.4 (21.5–33.3) 22.5 (18.2–33.5) 42.7 (11–145) 21 (6–29) Stool Sequencing
Li [20] 2018 China Ultrasound 30/37 47.53 ± 8.5 44.24 ± 9.2 15 (50%) 11 (29.7%) 27.19 ± 2.56 23.37 ± 2.21 27.0 ± 17.63 16.7 ± 8.51 Stool Sequencing
Nistal [21] 2019 Spain Ultrasound 36/17 49.70 (31–64) 40.12 (25–56) 14 (38.8%) 5 (29.4%) 45.64 (38.9–61.1) 46.9 (39–63) 34.22 (15–91) 27.12 (10–52) Stool Sequencing
Özkul [22] 2017 Turkey Histology 46/38 48.0 ± 12.0 36.0 ± 10.0 22 (47.8%) 12 (31.5%) 29.0 ± 4.0 22.0 ± 2.0 50.0 ± 41.0 20.0 ± 11.0 Stool Sequencing
Raman [23] 2013 Canada Ultrasound 30/30 49 (34–57) 51 (57–56) 13 (43.3%) 13 (43.3%) 33 (29–35) 22 (21–24) 51 (31–82) 18 (14–23) Stool Sequencing
Shen [24] 2017 China Histology 25/22 45.5 ± 10.1 50.5 ± 9.5 19 (76.0%) 17 (73.7%) 28.6 ± 3.5 21.6 ± 1.7 51.6 ± 34.5 17.7 ± 5.3 Stool Sequencing
Silva [25] 2018 Canada Histology 39/28 NAFL48 (33–61)NASH46.5 (29–68) 36.5 (21–58) 20 (51.3%) 15 (53.6%) NAFL27.4 (23.5–44.2)NASH32.1 (24.17–49.53) 26.6 (19.5–35.3) NAFL45(14–116)NASH70(22–168) 17.5 (7–41) Stool Sequencing
Sobhonslidsuk [26] 2018 Thailand Histology 16/8 59.8 ± 9.6 43.4 ± 6.8 3 (18.8%) 0 (0%) 27.7 ± 4.8 21.3 ± 1.2 59 ± 30 17 ± 6 Stool Sequencing
Tsai [27] 2020 China (Taiwan) Histology 50/25 51.2 ± 15.0 36.7 ± 15.0 24 (48.0%) 12 (48.0%) 31.3 ± 8.9 24.8 ± 5.2 50.2 ± 43.1 22.5 ± 15.7 Stool Sequencing
Wang [28] 2016 China Ultrasound 43/83 47.0 ± 12.0 40.5 ± 16.0 36 (83.4%) 70 (84.3%) 23.19 (22.19–24.22) 21.77 (20.7–23.38) 29 (20.5–39.5) 14.5 (12–20.75) Stool Sequencing
Wong [29] 2013 China (HongKong) Histology 16/22 51 ± 9 44 ± 10 9 (56.3%) 9 (40.9%) 29.1 ± 5.6 22.2 ± 2.7 80 (44–94) 22 (17–30) Stool Sequencing
Yun [30] 2019 Korea Histology 76/192 45.3 ± 8.2 42.9 ± 8.2 55 (72.4%) 83 (43.2%) 25.7 ± 2.6 22.2 ± 2.4 24.5 ± 12.9 20.9 ± 17.9 Stool Sequencing
Zhu [7] 2012 USA Histology 22/41 13.6 ± 3.5 Healthy14.4 ± 1.8Obese12.7 ± 3.2 12 (54.5%) 23 (56.1%) 34.0 ± 0.4 Healthy20.4 ± 0.1Obese33.4 ± 0.3 66.9 ± 1.9 HelathyNAObese 27.7 ± 0.6 Stool Sequencing
  1. Rank by the beginning letter of the first authors. Abbreviations: NAFLD nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFL nonalcoholic fatty liver, NASH nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, BMI body mass index, ALT alanine aminotransferase
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