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Table 1 Prevalence of plasma lipid disorders across five Southeast Asian countries and Australia

From: Prevalence of plasma lipid disorders with an emphasis on LDL cholesterol in selected countries in the Asia-Pacific region

Prevalence Australiaa Indonesiab Malaysiac Philippinesd Thailande Vietnamf
Data source Australian Health Survey: Biomedical Results for Chronic Diseases, 2011–12 [34] Basic Health Research 2013 (Indonesia) [35] National Health & Morbidity Survey (Malaysia) [36] 8th National Nutrition Survey Clinical and Health Survey (Philippines) [37] National Health Examination Survey V (Thailand) [38] National Survey on the Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases (STEPS) Viet Nam, 2015 [39]
Definition of high or ‘abnormal’ total cholesterol ≥5.5 mmol/L (213 mg/dL) ≥200 mg/dL ≥200 mg/dL ≥200 mg/dL ≥200 mg/dL ≥ 5.0 mmol/L or ≥ 190 mg/dL or currently on medication for elevated cholesterol
Prevalence of high or ‘abnormal’ total cholesterol (%) 32.8 35.9 47.7 47.2 43.8 30.2
Male vs. female (%) 32.4 vs. 33.2 30.0 vs. 39.6 43.5 vs. 52.2 41.9 vs. 51.8 40.8 vs. 46.7 25.2 vs. 35.0
Urban vs. rural (%) 39.5 vs. 32.1 47.7 vs. 47.7 50.7 vs. 43.5 45.2 vs. 42.7
Age group with highest prevalence (years) 55–64 55–59 50–59 45–59 50–69
Definition of high or ‘abnormal’ LDL-C ≥3.5 mmol/L (135 mg/dL) ≥130 mg/dL ≥130 mg/dL
Prevalence of high LDL-C (%) 33.2 41.9 47.5
Definition of low or ‘abnormal’ HDL-C < 1.0 mmol/L for males (39 mg/dL) and < 1.3 mmol/L for females (50.3 mg/dL) < 40 mg/dL < 40 mg/dL for males and < 50 mg/dL for females < 40 mg/dL for males and < 50 mg/dL for females < 1.03 mmol/L or < 40 mg/dL; HDL-C for females: < 1.29 mmol/L or < 50 mg/dL
Prevalence of low or ‘abnormal’ HDL-C (%) 23.1 22.9 71.0 40.3 67.0 (males) 72.0 (females)
Definition of high or ‘abnormal’ TG ≥2.0 mmol/L (177.14 mg/dL) ≥150 mg/dL ≥150 mg/dL ≥150 mg/dL
Prevalence of high or ‘abnormal’ TG (%) 13.9 24.9 38.7 31.0
Sample size ~ 14,000 ~ 39,000 ~ 16,000 ~ 19,000 ~ 19,000 ~ 4000
Sampling method Stratified multistage area sampling of private dwellings Multistage systematic random area sampling of households Two stage stratified random area sampling of households Multistage stratified area sampling of households Stratified multistage sampling of population Multistage stratified area sampling of households
Urban and/or rural sampling Both urban and rural (very remote areas excluded) Both urban and rural Both urban and rural Both urban and rural Both urban and rural Both urban and rural
Age range ≥18 years old ≥15 years old ≥18 years old ≥20 years old ≥15 years old 18–69 years old
Year data acquired 2011–2012 2013 2015 2013–2014 2014 2015
Finger prick No No (10 mL) Yes No (venous) No (venous) Yes
Fasted Yes Yes Yes Yes
  1. In instances where thresholds were provided in mmol/L, the equivalent threshold has also been expressed as mg/dL, which has been calculated using previously published conversion factors [40]
  2. Abbreviations: HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides