Skip to main content

Table 3 Effect size of NAFLD on incident diabetes in prespecified and exploratory subgroups

From: Association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and incident diabetes mellitus among Japanese: a retrospective cohort study using propensity score matching

Characteristic No. of participants HR (95% CI) P value P for interaction
Gender 0.2386
 Male 2048 2.04 (1.32, 3.15) 0.0013  
 Female 246 4.34 (0.29, 64.28) 0.2853  
BMI (kg/m2) 0.1157
  < 25 1538 1.59 (0.87, 2.92) 0.1353  
  ≥ 25 662 3.40 (1.61, 7.17) 0.0013  
Visceral fat obesity 0.0688
 NO 1996 1.67 (1.02, 2.73) 0.0410  
 YES 272 4.75 (1.49, 15.11) 0.0083  
FPG (mg/dL) 0.2901
 Low 758 5.31 (0.64, 44.16) 0.1221  
 High 1056 1.88 (1.12, 3.15) 0.0172  
HbA1c (%) 0.2688
 Low 494 11.99 (0.87, 164.39) 0.0629  
 High 1258 1.95 (1.20, 3.20) 0.0076  
TC (mg/dL) 0.9720
 Low 834 3.01 (1.33, 6.79) 0.0081  
 High 852 2.82 (1.32, 6.04) 0.0076  
TG (mg/dL) 0.1982
 Low 914 1.98 (0.76, 5.13) 0.1607  
 High 938 4.10 (2.16, 7.77) < 0.0001  
HDL-C (mg/dL) 0.8977
 Low 892 1.96 (1.11, 3.46) 0.0197  
 High 916 2.07 (0.86, 4.97) 0.1039  
ALT (U/L) 0.0611
 Low 948 1.19 (0.55, 2.56) 0.6603  
 High 968 2.82 (1.52, 5.25) 0.0011  
AST (U/L) 0.2397
 Low 882 1.39 (0.63, 3.07) 0.4144  
 High 902 2.65 (1.32, 5.32) 0.0060  
GGT (U/L) 0.2994
 Low 880 1.97 (0.82, 4.73) 0.1294  
 High 900 3.37 (1.80, 6.33) 0.0002  
Propensity score 0.3788
 Low 1086 1.16 (0.36, 3.74) 0.8042  
 Medium 1060 1.73 (0.88, 3.41) 0.1095  
 High 1088 2.71 (1.68, 4.39) < 0.0001  
  1. Note 1: The above model has been adjusted for age, gender, BMI, waist circumference, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exerciser, SBP, DBP, ALT, AST, GGT, HbA1c, FPG, TC, TG, HDL-C
  2. Note 2 In each case, the model was not adjusted for the stratification variable