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Table 1 Baseline features of research participants

From: Association between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and type 2 diabetes mellitus among Chinese: the Beijing longitudinal study of aging

Variables High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L) P value
<  1.15
(n = 365)
1.15–1.39
(n = 361)
1.40–1.69
(n = 364)
≥ 1.70
(n = 372)
Age, year 68.15 ± 8.29 69.21 ± 8.18 69.26 ± 8.89 68.6 ± 8.54 0.279
Male, n (%) 207 (56.71) 178 (49.31) 176 (47.31) 172 (47.25) 0.032
Residence, n (%)      0.022
 Urban 201 (55.07) 206 (57.06) 193 (51.88) 229 (62.91)  
 Rural 164 (45.93) 155 (42.94) 179 (48.12) 135 (37.09)  
Educational level, n (%)      0.081
 Secondary or higher 86 (23.56) 81 (22.44) 61 (16.40) 74 (20.33)  
 Primary or lower 279 (76.44) 280 (77.56) 311 (83.60) 290 (79.67)  
Job types, n (%)      0.078
 Mental activity 73 (20.0) 72 (19.9) 59 (15.9) 67 (18.4)  
 Light physical activity 93 (25.5) 98 (27.1) 116 (31.2) 127 (34.9)  
 Heavy physical activity 199 (54.5) 191 (52.9) 197 (53.0) 170 (46.7)  
Alcohol intake, n (%)      0.040
 Mild 39 (10.68) 42 (11.63) 46 (12.37) 60 (16.48)  
 Moderate 326 (89.32) 319 (88.37) 326 (87.63) 304 (83.52)  
 Heavy 39 (10.7) 42 (11.6) 46 (12.4) 60 (16.5)  
Smoking status, n (%)      0.3810
 Non-smoker 190 (52.1) 197 (54.6) 205 (55.1) 182 (50.0)  
 Ex-smokers 50 (13.7) 63 (17.5) 59 (15.9) 64 (17.6)  
 Current smokers 125 (34.2) 101 (28.0) 108 (29.0) 118 (32.4)  
Staple food, g/day, n (%)     0.119
  ≤ 300 131 (35.9) 150 (41.6) 144 (38.7) 163 (44.8)  
 350–450 131 (35.9) 125 (34.6) 129 (34.7) 129 (35.4)  
  ≥ 500 g 103 (28.2) 86 (23.8) 99 (26.6) 72 (19.8)  
Egg consumption, a day, n (%)      0.026
 0 59 (16.2) 67 (18.6) 52 (14.0) 48 (13.2)  
 1 200 (54.8) 205 (56.8) 212 (57.0) 184 (50.5)  
  > 1 106 (29.0) 89 (24.7) 108 (29.0) 132 (36.3)  
Regular exercise, hours/week, n (%)     0.572
  < 3 145 (39.73) 146 (40.44) 157 (42.2) 145 (39.84)  
 3–10 151 (41.37) 151 (41.83) 141 (37.90) 163 (44.78)  
  > 10 69 (18.90) 64 (17.73) 74 (19.89) 56 (15.38)  
BMI (kg/m2) 23.9 ± 3.78 23.64 ± 3.84 22.75 ± 3.76 22.27 ± 3.85 < 0.001
TG (mmol/L) 1.74 ± 0.92 1.55 ± 0.72 1.29 ± 0.57 1.28 ± 0.65 < 0.001
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.00 ± 0.95 3.17 ± 0.97 2.88 ± 0.99 2.89 ± 0.99 < 0.001
FPG (mmol/L) 5.06 ± 1.01 5.10 ± 1.01 5.19 ± 1.01 5.33 ± 0.84 0.003
Hypertension, n (%) 233 (63.8) 226 (62.6) 31 (62.1) 223 (61.3) 0.910
Antihypertensive drug, n (%) 58 (15.9) 52 (14.4) 52 (14.0) 45 (12.4) 0.595
CVD medication, n (%) 57 (15.6) 61 (16.9) 43 (11.6) 46 (12.6) 0.131
  1. BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglycerides