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Table 1 Clinical data in malignant and non-malignant IPMNs

From: Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: A multicenter study

  Training group (center 1 and Center 2) Validation group (center 3)
  Total (n = 151) Malignant IPMN
(n = 47)
Non-malignant
IPMN
(n = 104)
P Total (n = 75) Malignant IPMN
(n = 19)
Non-malignant
IPMN
(n = 56)
P
Age 63.28 ± 9.47 63.59 ± 8.99 62.60 ± 10.50 0.55 64.8 ± 8.90 68.42 ± 8.25 63.68 ± 8.86 0.44
Size 3.69 ± 1.98 3.93 ± 1.63 3.58 ± 2.11 0.34 3.1 ± 1.12 3.8 ± 1.33 2.5 ± 0.93 0.02
Sex(male/female) 95/56 34/13 61/43 0.11 49/26 11/8 38/18 0.43
Dysplasia     /     /
Low-intermediate grade 104 / 104   56 0 56  
High-grade 24 24 0   11 11 0  
Invasion 23 23 0   8 8 0  
Type     < 0.01     < 0.01
Main 24 16 8   14 8 6  
Branch 73 9 64   46 6 40  
Mixed 54 22 32   15 5 10  
Location     0.11     0.94
Head-neck 95 34 61   41 9 32  
Body and Tail 56 13 43   34 10 24  
CEA (ng/ml) 3.57 ± 3.61 4.75 ± 5.65 3.03 ± 1.95 0.09 3.99 ± 10.03 8.51 ± 19.29 2.43 ± 1.59 0.03
CA19-9 (U/ml) 48.68 ± 228.65 99.04 ± 396.08 26.19 ± 70.67 0.002 71.37 ± 204.27 132.83 ± 270.4 50.15 ± 174.53 0.13
HDL-c (mmol/L) 1.19 ± 0.39 1.10 ± 0.52 1.21 ± 0.31 0.38 1.02 ± 0.39 0.84 ± 0.41 1.08 ± 0.37 0.02
HDL-c < 0.7 9 7 2 < 0.01 12 9 3 < 0.01
LDL (mmol/L) 2.51 ± 0.82 2.52 ± 0.69 2.51 ± 0.89 0.95 2.27 ± 0.69 1.91 ± 0.65 2.40 ± 0.67 0.01
MPD diameter 0.61 ± 0.41 0.90 ± 0.49 0.48 ± 0.29 < 0.001   0.97 ± 0.42 0.43 ± 0.21 < 0.01
Pancreatitis 3 0 3 0.24 1 0 1 0.25
Diabetes 23 9 14 0.13 4 1 3 1.0
Lymph node metastasis (yes vs. no) 2 2 0 0.09   0 0 /
Peripancreatic extension 5 5 0 0.003 1 1 0 0.45
Mural nodule 17 13 4 < 0.01 8 5 3 0.01
  1. Malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) were defined as those with high grade dysplasia and associated invasive carcinoma
  2. CA 19 − 9: carbohydrate antigen 19 − 9; CEA: carcinoembryonic antigen; MPD: main pancreatic duct; HDL-c: high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; LDL: low density lipoprotein