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Table 4 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of baseline low density lipoprotein cholesterol categories for all-cause mortality by age group

From: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and all-cause mortality rate: findings from a study on Japanese community-dwelling persons

LDL cholesterol Prevalence of death/total (%) Non-adjusted
HR (95% CI)
Gender and age-adjusted HR (95% CI) Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) a
<  55 years of age (n = 788)
 Very low 4/65 (6.2) 7.03 (0.79–62.9) 6.47 (0.70–59.8) 4.91 (0.49–49.6)
 Low 1/168 (0.6) 0.71 (0.04–11.3) 0.70 (0.04–11.3) 0.65 (0.04–10.9)
 Medium 13/431 (3.0) 3.65 (0.48–27.9) 4.03 (0.52–30.9) 3.19 (0.40–25.4)
 High 1/124 (0.8) 1.00 1.00 1.00
P-value 0.041 0.108 0.123 0.226
≥ 55 and < 65 years of age (n = 783)
 Very low 4/28 (14.3) 8.19 (1.83–36.6) 6.66 (1.40–31.7) 7.04 (1.40–35.5)
 Low 9/99 (9.1) 5.74 (1.55–21.2) 4.66 (1.22–17.8) 4.33 (1.12–16.8)
 Medium 19/468 (4.1) 2.55 (0.75–8.62) 2.29 (0.67–7.80) 2.24 (0.65–7.65)
 High 3/188 (1.6) 1.00 1.00 1.00
P-value 0.002 0.009 0.042 0.057
≥ 65 and < 75 years of age (n = 1395)
 Very low 9/52 (17.3) 2.76 (1.246.15) 2.34 (1.025.39) 2.52 (1.085.93)
 Low 18/179 (10.1) 1.62 (0.84–3.11) 1.43 (0.73–2.79) 1.37 (0.70–2.69)
 Medium 60/872 (6.9) 1.12 (0.66–1.89) 1.02 (0.60–1.74) 0.93 (0.54–1.59)
 High 18/292 (6.2) 1.00 1.00 1.00
P-value 0.007 0.037 0.109 0.044
≥ 75 years of age (n = 718)
 Very low 16/36 (44.4) 3.03 (1.615.71) 2.53 (1.334.84) 2.13 (1.094.16)
 Low 34/109 (31.2) 2.27 (1.353.84) 1.99 (1.173.39) 1.75 (1.013.05)
 Medium 93/441 (21.1) 1.27 (0.81–1.98) 1.22 (0.78–1.92) 1.09 (0.68–1.73)
 High 24/132 (18.2) 1.00 1.00 1.00
P-value <  0.001 <  0.001 0.004 0.021
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, LDL cholesterol categories: very low, < 70 mg/dL; low, 70–92 mg/dL; medium, 93–143 mg/dL; high, ≥ 144 mg/dL
  2. a Multivariate-adjusted HR: adjusted for gender, age, body mass index categories, smoking status, drinking status, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterolemia, lipid-lowering medication, chronic kidney disease, and hyperuricemia
  3. Significant values (P <  0.05) are presented in bold