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Table 4 Effect of normal and dysfunctional HDL on breast cancer cells

From: High density lipoproteins and oxidative stress in breast cancer

HDL sample Effect on breast cancer cells Signaling pathways involved
Normal HDL Decreased metastasis of MCF7 cells in the liver compared with control animals in which HDL was not injected.  
Hypochlorite-oxidized HDL Stimulation of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion in vitro
Promotion of breast cancer cell pulmonary and hepatic metastasis compared with normal HDL in vivo.
Protein kinase C (PKC) pathway
Glycated HDL
Copper-oxidized HDL
Stimulation of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion in vitro
increased capacity of adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared with normal HDL
Protein kinase C (PKC) pathway
HDL isolated from T2DM patients Promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells
Promoted the metastasis capacity of breast cancer cells in vivo
Increased capacity of adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared with normal HDL
Activation of Akt, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways
HDL isolated from breast cancer patients complicated with T2DM Promoted breast cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs and stimulated higher intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) Activation of PKC pathway
ERK and p38 MAPK pathways