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Table 1 Characteristics of the non-DR group and DR group

From: High remnant cholesterol level is relevant to diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Variables All (n = 456) Non-DR (n = 239) DR (n = 217) P-value
Age (years) 53.54 ± 12.13 / 55 (44–63) 53 (40–62) 57 (47–64) 0.009**
Male gender, n (%) 292 (64) 161 (65.2) 131 (62.7) 0.579
Diabetes duration (years) 9.73 ± 6.97 / 9 (4–15) 7 (3–12) 11 (6–16) 0.001**
Hypertension, n (%) 232 (46.4) 105 (42.5) 127 (50.2) 0.085
Current smoking, n (%) 150 (32.9) 89 (36) 61 (29.2) 0.121
DNP, n (%) 175 (38.5) 79 (33.2) 96 (44.2) 0.027
BMI (kg/m2) 25.6 (23.92–27.95) 25.39 (23.84–27.39) 25.6 (23.98–28.09) 0.929
SBP (mmHg) 140 (126–150) 137 (123–150) 140 (130–154) 0.007*
DBP (mmHg) 80 (74–90) 80 (72–88) 81 (75–90) 0.067
FBG (mmol/L) 8.44 (6.88–10.61) 8.2 (6.79–10.54) 8.59 (7.04–10.71) 0.163
HbA1c (%) 8.4 (7.2–9.6) 8.2 (7.1–9.5) 8.5 (7.6–9.8) 0.076
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 68 (55–81) 66 (54–80) 69 (60–84) 0.057
Fasting C-Peptide (ng/ml) 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 1.55 (1.0–2.3) 1.5 (1.0–2.15) 0.426
Neutrophil (× 109/L) 3.71 (3.05–4.45) 3.48 (2.96–4.41) 3.85 (3.17–4.5) 0.01*
Lymphocyte (×109/L) 2.22 (1.78–2.64) 2.26 (1.87–2.69) 2.17 (1.73–2.56) 0.053
Monocyte (×109/L) 0.38 (0.31–0.45) 0.38 (0.3–0.45) 0.38 (0.31–0.44) 0.31
TC (mmol/L) 5.02 (4.42–5.74) 4.96 (4.24–5.58) 5.13 (4.58–5.96) 0.000**
TG (mmol/L) 2.18 (1.4–3.43) 2.12 (1.43–3.2) 2.31 (1.35–3.59) 0.286
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.15 (0.99–1.3) 1.11 (0.99–1.28) 1.16 (1.00–1.325) 0.496
LDL-C (mmol/L) 3.09 (2.66–3.58) 3.14 (2.65–3.59) 3.05 (2.66–3.55) 0.822
APOA (g/L) 1.26 (1.13–1.39) 1.25 (1.14–1.39) 1.21 (1.11–1.40) 0.981
APOB (g/L) 1.03 (0.87–1.21) 1.035 (0.84–1.2) 1.03 (0.9–1.22) 0.2
RC (mmol/L) 0.65 (0.45–0.99) 0.54 (0.31–0.83) 0.74 (0.60–1.12) 0.000**
TyG-index 9.62 ± 0.78 9.52 ± 0.73 9.72 ± 0.82 0.006*
NLR 1.64 (1.36–2.03) 1.60 (1.30–1.93) 1.69 (1.41–2.26) 0.000**
Uric Acid (μmol/L) 329.3 (280.4–393.8) 326.3 (276.6–395) 330.8 (286.05–393.7) 0.644
Creatinine (μmol/L) 61.3 (50.6–70.5) 60.5 (50.45–70.13) 62.3 (51.1–72.4) 0.384
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 108.6 (97.68–121.03) 110.96 (98.24–123.10) 106.27 (96–117.95) 0.013
mAlb (mg/24 h) 20.31 (19.76–33.63) 19.95 (19.57–23.56) 20.71 (19.95–56.53) 0.000**
Metformin, n (%) 277 (60.7) 149 (60.3) 128 (61.2) 0.841
DPP-IV inhibitor, n (%) 189 (41.4) 98 (39.7) 91 (43.5) 0.404
Acarbose, n (%) 68 (15.3) 38 (15.9) 30 (14.6) 0.712
Insulin, n (%) 139 (30.5) 72 (29.1) 67 (32.1) 0.502
Anitihypertensive drugs, n (%) 159 (34.9) 76 (30.8) 83 (39.7) 0.046*
  1. Abbreviations: DR diabetic retinopathy, DPN diabetic peripheral neuropathy, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FBG Fasting blood glucose, APOA apolipoprotein A, APOB apolipoprotein B, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, RC remnant cholesterol, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, TyG-index triglyceride glucose index, NLR neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, DR diabetic retinopathy, DPP-IV dipeptidyl peptidase-IV, mAlb microalbuminuria
  2. Notes: Data are expressed as mean ± SD, percentages, or as medians (IQR); p-values were compared by independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, or Chi-square test as appropriate.*P < 0.05, **P < 0. 001