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Table 3 Association between low HDL cholesterol and depression before and after adjustment in Sample 2

From: Low cholesterol is not associated with depression: data from the 2005-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  Model 1
OR (95% CI)
Model 2
OR (95% CI)
Model 3
OR (95% CI)
All sample 1.2 (1.0-1.3)* 1.4 (1.2-1.6) * 0.9 (0.8-1.1)
Stratified by sex
 Male 1.2 (1.0-1.4)* 1.2 (1.0-1.4)* 0.9 (0.8-1.1)
 Female 1.8 (1.5-2.1) * 1.7 (1.5-2.1)* 0.9 (0.8-1.1)
  1. Model 1 only included HDL cholesterol, and no covariate was adjusted; Model 2 adjusted for age and sex; Model 3 adjusted for sex, age, race, educational level, marital status, smoking status, alcohol status, body mass index, self-rated health, poverty income ratio, physical function; high blood pressure; stroke; coronary heart disease; and diabetes. * P <0.05