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Table 1 Characteristic of T2DM patients with and without CAD

From: Circulating growth differentiation factor 15 levels and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratio in coronary artery disease patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Characteristic T2DM without CAD(n = 249) T2DM with CAD(n = 253) p value
Clinical variables
 Age (years) 51(42,59) 59(53,67) < 0.001
 Male (%) 54.15 48.19 0.182
 Diabetic durations (years) 1(0,4) 3(0,6) < 0.001
 BMI 24.04 ± 0.11 24.93 ± 0.14 0.002
Medical history (n, %)
 Smoking (%) 20.95 18.07 0.432
 Alcohol drinking (%) 14.22 13.65 0.853
 Hypertension (%) 32.41 28.92 0.396
Medication (n, %)
 Insulin (%) 62.06 69.48 0.080
 Metformin (%) 47.04 50.60 0.424
 Anti-hypertension 28.85 23.69 0.189
Laboratory variables
 WBC (×  109/L) 6.09(5.18,7.02) 7.31(5.95,8.64) < 0.001
 NEU (× 109/L) 3.30(2.66,4.07) 4.53(3.02,6.07) < 0.001
 LYM (× 109/L) 1.95(1.55,2.39) 1.73(1.28,2.15) < 0.001
 NLR ratio 1.66(1.30,2.15) 2.50(1.61,4.24) < 0.001
 hsCRP (mg/dl) 0.80(0.34,2.56) 1.69(0.64,3.74) < 0.001
 HbA1c (%) 8.5(6.8,10,4) 8.8(7.5,9.0) 0.334
 FPG (mmol/L) 9.76(7.03,12.22) 9.04(7.52,11.45) 0.569
 2hPG (mmol/L) 14.37(10.99,18.81) 18.31(13.22,21.82) < 0.001
 GA (g/L) 9.54(6.86, 12.30) 10.76(8.97,12.74) < 0.001
 GA/ALB (%) 0.234(0.174,0.299) 0.354(0.307,0.407) < 0.001
 ALT (U/L) 19(14,28) 21(15.29) 0.065
 AST (U/L) 17(13,22) 21(16.27) < 0.001
 GGT (U/L) 27(18,32) 28(19,36) 0.968
 Urea (mmol/L) 5.44(4.50,6.35) 5.88(4.75,7.08) < 0.001
 Cr (μmol/L) 64(57,72) 73(64,82) < 0.001
 UA (μmol/L) 350(288,423) 342(286,423) 0.614
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 108.35(98.77,116.57) 97.63(90.48,106.22) < 0.001
 FFA (mmol/L) 0.31(0.20,0.45) 0.54(0.34,0.91) < 0.001
 TC (mmol/L) 4.56(3.86,5.17) 4.47(3.79,5.31) 0.909
 TG (mmol/L) 1.60(1.12,2.87) 1.56(1.02,2.30) 0.135
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 0.96(0.82,1.17) 0.89(0.77,1.07) 0.002
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.53(1.91,3.22) 2.40(1.68,3.23) 0.347
 Apo A1 (g/L) 1.22(1.09,1.35) 1.17(1.05,1.28) 0.003
 Apo B (g/L) 0.82(0.69,0.95) 0.90(0.74,1.02) < 0.001
 Apo B/Apo A1 ratio 0.68(0.55,0.81) 0.78(0.60,0.91) 0.001
 GDF-15 (pg/dl) 7.88(5.92,10.11) 13.84(9.43,18.41) < 0.001
  1. All data are given in the form of mean ± standard deviation, median (25th percentile-75th percentile) and percentage
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, WBC white blood cell, NEU neutrophil, LYM lymphocyte, NLR neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c, FPG fasting plasma glucose, 2hPG 2 h-plasma glucose, GA glycated albumin, GA/ALB glycated albumin ratio, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, GGT γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, Cr creatinine, UA uric acid, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2), FFA free fatty acid, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Apo A1 apolipoproteins A1, Apo B apolipoproteins B, GDF15 growth differentiation factor 15