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Table 2 Association of coronary heart diseases with serum GDF-15 in T2DM patients

From: Circulating growth differentiation factor 15 levels and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratio in coronary artery disease patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

GDF-15 quartiles n Concentration range OR (95%CI)
Crude Model 1 Model 2
Quartile 1(low) 125 ≤7.030 Reference Reference Reference
Quartile 2 126 7.030–9.935 2.426(1.345,4.373) 2.292(1.218,4.315) 2.417(0.995,5.868)
Quartile 3 126 9.935–15.177 10.842(5.967,19.700) 9.442(5.007,17.805) 5.250(2.068,13.328)
Quartile 4(high) 125 ≥15.177 15.498(8.337,28.810) 9.502(4.916,18.366) 11.514(4.586,28.909)
β    −0.990 −0.838 −0.656
SE    0.100 0.106 0.146
p value    < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between serum levels of GDF-15 and coronary artery diseases in T2DM patients. Serum GDF-15 was divided into quartiles (quartile 4: ≥75th, quartile 3: 50–75th, quartile 2: 25–50th, quartile 1: < 25th percentile)
  2. Crude: no adjustment
  3. Model 1: adjusted for age, gender, diabetic durations, BMI, alcohol drinking, smoking, hypertension, insulin, metformin and anti-hypertension treatments
  4. Model 2: adjusted for the same variables as Model 1 as well as WBC, NEU, LYM, NLR, hs-CRP, HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, GA, GA/ALB, ALT, AST, GGT, Urea, Cr, UA, eGFR, FFA, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoB, ApoA1 and ApoB/ApoA1