Scheme showing interaction between AA and syntaxin and t he role of LXA4 and PGE2 in the pathobiology of DM. LXA4 is anti-inflammatory whereas PGE2 is pro-inflammatory in nature, and both are derived from AA. For further details see text. DHA, an n-3 fatty acid may also have actions like AA. DHA is the precursor of resolvins, protectins and maresins. LXA4 seems to be the mediator of the anti-inflammatory actions of resolvins, protectins and maresins. LXA4 is more potent compared to resolvins, protectins and maresins in eliciting its anti-inflammatory actions. SNARE proteins = "SNAP REceptor". During membrane fusion, v-SNARE and t-SNARE proteins on separate membranes combine to form a trans-SNARE complex, also known as a "SNAREpin". SNAREs are the core required components of the fusion machinery and function independently of additional cytosolic accessory proteins. When cells containing v-SNAREs contact cells containing t-SNAREs, trans-SNARE complexes form, and cell-cell fusion ensues. Munc-18 (an acronym for mammalian uncoordinated-18) proteins are a member of the Sec1/Munc18-like (SM) protein family. Munc-18 proteins are essential components of the synaptic vesicle fusion protein complex and are crucial for the regulated exocytosis of neurons and neuroendocrine cells. PGE2 = Prostaglandin E2; LXA4 = Lipoxin A4. GLUT = Glucose transporter. IL-6 = Interleukin-6; TNF-α = Tumor necrosis factor-α; NF-kB = Nuclear factor-kapa B. PIP2 = Phosphatidylinositol
4,5-bisphosphate or PtdIns(4,5)P2, also known
simply as PIP2 or PI(4,5)P2.