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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The effects of coconut oil on the cardiometabolic profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Source RCT design Population Intervention (daily amount of coconut oil) Control N In N C Female, N (%) Baseline lipid profile, mean (SD) Follow up (wk)
TC HDL-C LDL-C TG
Assunção (2009) [43] Parallel group Women with abdominal obesity 30 ml PUFA (soybean) 20 20 40 (100) 191 (32.7) 48.5 (8.7) 110.6 (28.7) 160 (81.9) 12
Cândido (2021) [42] Parallel group Women with IMC between 26 and 35 kg/m2, % body fat > 30% 25 ml MUFA (olive oil)
PUFA (soybean)
24 61 85 (100) 168.6 (9.7) 47.2 (2.7) 98.7 (9.7) 96.5 (8.9) 9
Chinwong (2017) [18] Crossover Healthy individuals 15 ml Placebo (carboxymethycellulose solution) 34 34 16 (47) 190.8 (32.3) 60.6 (9.0) 116.5 (30.1) 68.5 (23.1) 8
Cox (1995) [44] Crossover Healthy individuals 39 g SFA (butter)
PUFA (safflower)
28 28 15 (53.6) 245.5 (27.5) 58 (15.5) 160.5 (29.4) 161.2 (79.7) 6
Ganji (1996) [45] Crossover Healthy individuals 20% of daily calories PUFA (soybean and soybean + psyllium fiber) 10 10 5 (50) 187.9 (30.2) 56.5 (12) 107.5 (31.3) 132.9 (40.7) 4
Harris (2017) [46] Crossover Postmenopausal women 30 ml PUFA (safflower) 14 14 14 (100) 223.1 (35.1) 64.1 (17.4) 128.7 (26.1) 105.2 (66.2) 4
Heber (1992) [50] Crossover Healthy men 17.5% of daily calories SFA (palm)
Hydrogenated soybean
13 13 0 (0) 176 (4) 37 (9) 120 (7) 95 (10) 3
Khaw (2018) [39] Parallel group Healthy individuals 50 g SFA (butter)
MUFA (olive)
30 66 63 (67) 229.31 (37.5) 73.47 (19.33) 138.05 (36.34) NR 4
Lu (1997) [26] Crossover Healthy women 20% of daily calories PUFA (soybean)
A16 oil
15 15 15 (100) 162.4 (17.01) 52.97 (10.82) 90.1 (15.08) 93 (38.97) 3
McKenney (1995) [41] Crossover Individuals with hypercholesterolemia Sufficient to increase in 10% the amount of daily calories from SFA PUFA (canola) 11 (all) 5 (45.5) 222.3 (25.3) 49.8 (18.3) 149 (20.3) 117.1 (49.2) 6
Maki (2018) [47] Crossover Healthy individuals 54.4 g (muffins or rolls) PUFA (corn) 13 12 13 (52) 188 (178, 215)a 46 (38.5, 55.5)a 123 (105, 142)a 92.5 (76.5, 136)a 4
Oliveira-de-Lira (2018) [16] Parallel group Obese women 6 g (capsules) PUFA (safflower, chia, and soybean) 18 57 75 (100) 215.8 (24.2) 48.3 (8.1) 149.6 (23.7) 132.7 (41.7) 8
Reiser (1985) [48] Crossover Healthy women 21% of daily calories SFA (lard)
PUFA (safflower)
19 (all) 0 (0) NA NA NA NA 5
Schwab (1995) [51] Crossover Healthy women 16-26 g of coconut oil/day SFA (palm) 7 8 15 (100) 187.9(25.5) 59.9 (10.4) 110.6 (17.8) 82.4 (34.5) 4
Vijayakumar (2016) [17] Parallel group Individuals with CVD 15% of daily calories PUFA (sunflower) 99 99 13 (6.5) 148.3 (28.3) 40.8 (9.5) 88.2 (22.2) 113.1 (51.5) 2 years
Vogel (2020) [49] Parallel group Overweight men 12 ml PUFA (soybean) 15 14 0 (0) 184.8 (44.1) 39.5 (10.1) 117 (36.1) 140.9 (67.1) 4
Voon (2011) [40] Crossover Normal and overweight healthy adults 20% of daily calories SFA (palm)
MUFA (olive)
15 30 36 (80) 182.1(25.5) 47.6 (10.8) 118.3 (22.4) 85 (39) 5
  1. a Median (IQR). Baseline lipid values are expressed in mg/dL. Abbreviations: RCT, Randomized clinical trial, N In Number of participants in the intervention arm, N C Number of participants in the control arm, TC Total cholesterol, HDL-C High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG Triglycerides, wk, week, PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid, SFA Saturated fatty acid, MUFA Monounsaturated fatty acid, A16 Transgenic soybean oil, NA data not avaliable, CVD Cardiovascular disease