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Table 1 Rare adipose disorders and their clinical features

From: Subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid desaturation in adults with and without rare adipose disorders

Disorder Synonym Pattern of Abnormal SAT Clinical Features
Dercum's disease (DD) [9]
Type I
Type II
Type III
Adiposis dolorosa
Morbus Dercums
Type I: Juxta-articular
Type II: Diffuse, associated with obesity
Type III: Discrete, fatty lumps
Painful subcutaneous adipose tissue in all types
Male-female ratio 1:5-30
Fatigue, myalgias, shortness of breath [10]
Autosomal dominant transmission has been reported [11]
Familial multiple lipomatosis (FML) None Discrete, lipomas +/- encapsulation; arm, thighs, abdomen, lower back, flanks [12, 13] Non-painful.
Male-female ratio 1:1
If lipomatosis becomes painful, is considered DD Type III [11, 14, 15].
Autosomal dominant transmission; recessive inheritance has been reported.
Multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) Lanois-Bensaude's syndrome
Benign symmetric lipomatosis
Madelung's disease
Diffusely in men on neck and back, upper arms in women; supraclavicular, on abdomen, and lower back in both men and women [16] Non-painful.
Male-female ratio 15:1-30:1
Polyneuropathy [17]
Mitochondrial mutations found in some [18]
Risk factors: corticosteroids and alcohol abuse.