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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and follow-up changes of selected variables

From: Functional changes in adipose tissue in a randomised controlled trial of physical activity

  Baselinea Changeb Between group diff
  Control n = 43 Intervention n = 30 Control Intervention PANCOVA
Age (yr) 67.5 (0.5) 67.6 (0.5) - -  
Female (%) 58 63 - -  
Exercise time (min/w) 120 (5, 205) 135 (40, 215) 0 (-105, 240) +137 (0, 490)** 0.03
Steps per day 5200 (2730) 5900 (2800) +719 (2490) +1190 (3270) 0.28
Dietary improvements (%)c - - 12 49 0.001
Weight (kg) 89 (81, 95) 82 (73, 97) -0.1 (-1.1, 0.9) -1.8 (-3.9, 0.3)** 0.02
BMI (kg/m2) 30.3 (28.6, 31.8)†† 27.5 (26.6, 30.8) -0.04 (-0.47, 0.30) -0.68 (-1.21, 0.11)** 0.04
Waist circumference (cm) 107 (8) 103 (10) -1.3 (3.1)** -2.6 (4.0)** 0.12
Body fat mass (kg) 31.4 (28.1, 38.7) 29.8 (24.7, 31.6) -0.5 (-1.9, 0.4)* -1.5 (-3.6, -0.4)** 0.04
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 144 (17) 136 (16) -5 (11)* -0 (15) 0.61
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81 (9) 78 (10) -1 (8) -1 (9) 0.61
Insulin (uU/mL) 10.9 (6.8, 14.1) 8.2 (6.4, 10.9) -0.85 (-2.98, 0.89) -0.90 (-2.97, 0.46)* 0.16
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.4 (4.9, 5.7) 5.3 (4.9, 5.5) -0.2 (-0.4, 0.1)** -0.1 (-0.3, 0.1) 0.79
HOMA 2.6 (1.7, 3.6) 1.9 (1.7, 2.3) -0.2 (-0.9, 0.3) -0.2 (-0.7, 0.1) 0.19
HbA1c (%) 4.8 (4.6, 5.0) 4.9 (4.7, 5.2) 0.1 (0.0, 0.3)** -0.1 (-0.2, 0.1) 0.0003
Triacylglycerol (mmol/L) 1.2 (1.0, 1.6) 1.1 (1.0, 1.5) -0.0 (-0.3, 0.2) -0.1 (-0.3, 0.1)* 0.23
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.6 (0.9) 5.9 (1.0) 0.0 (0.6) -0.3 (1.0) 0.14
HDL (mmol/L) 1.7 (1.4, 1.9) 1.7 (1.5, 1.9) -0.1 (-0.1, 0.1) +0.0 (-0.2, 0.2) 0.57
ApoB/A1 0.73 (0.14) 0.78 (0.20) -0.04 (0.11)* -0.08 (0.15)** 0.27
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 1.9 (1.1, 4.0) 1.7 (0.8, 3.4) +0.2 (-0.4, 1.5) +0.1 (-0.7, 0.6) 0.20
Adiponectin (mg/L) 16 (10, 21) 20 (14, 24) -0.1 (-1.5, 1.3) +0.3 (-1.0, 1.3) 0.21
Leptin (ng/mL) 22 (13, 36) 15 (13, 23) -1.1 (-5.0, 0.5) -1.8 (-8.8, 0.3) ** 0.011
  1. Values are mean (SD) or median (IQR) and changes denote measure(follow-up) – measure(baseline).
  2. Total number of individuals analysed varies slightly due to technical reasons.
  3. a Significant differences between groups at baseline: †P < 0.05, ††P < 0.01.
  4. b Significant within-group changes: *P < 0.05,**P < 0.01.
  5. c Defined as changes (according to self-reported frequencies) in the consumption of at least three of the following dietary variables: vegetables, fruit, seafood, candy, buns, snacks, high fat cheese, pizza and soda.
  6. HOMA, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HDL, high density lipoprotein; ApoB/A1, ratio between apolipoproteins B and A1.