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Table 3 Cheek cell FA composition during supplementation with linseed oil mix and olive oil

From: Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study

FA [% FAME] Test group - linseed oil mix (LO) (n = 23) Control group - olive oil (OO) (n = 15) LO x OO
Day 0 Day 7 Day 56 Day 0 Day 7 Day 56 Day 56
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD P 1
SFA        
 C16:0 17.1 ± 2.20a 16.9 ± 2.14ab 15.9 ± 1.75b 17.0 ± 1.55 16.9 ± 1.89 16.6 ± 2.18 0.590
 C18:0 16.7 ± 3.82 15.9 ± 3.08 15.8 ± 2.78 16.3 ± 2.71 15.3 ± 1.60 16.1 ± 2.25 0.672
n-9 MUFA        
 C18:1n-9 (OA) 27.0 ± 3.76b 26.6 ± 3.00b 28.0 ± 2.93a 26.4 ± 2.47b 27.8 ± 1.75a 27.9 ± 2.59a 0.222
 Total n-9 27.4 ± 3.78b 27.0 ± 3.01b 28.4 ± 2.92a 26.8 ± 2.49b 28.3 ± 1.76a 28.4 ± 2.55a 0.206
n-6 PUFA        
 C18:2n-6 (LA) 16.6 ± 2.01b 18.2 ± 4.79ab 17.4 ± 1.93a 17.9 ± 2.04 17.8 ± 1.90 16.6 ± 1.61 0.070
 C18:3n-6 0.10 ± 0.03a 0.09 ± 0.03b 0.10 ± 0.04ab 0.09 ± 0.03 0.10 ± 0.02 0.11 ± 0.03 0.306
 C20:3n-6 1.20 ± 0.28 1.13 ± 0.33 1.18 ± 0.25 1.09 ± 0.13b 1.09 ± 0.22b 1.18 ± 0.23a 0.108
 C20:4n-6 (AA) 3.15 ± 0.74 3.18 ± 0.89 3.30 ± 0.73 3.58 ± 0.74 3.61 ± 0.68 3.71 ± 0.69 0.215
 C22:5n- 6 0.06 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.05 0.07 ± 0.01b 0.07 ± 0.02b 0.08 ± 0.02a 0.259
 Total n-6 21.6 ± 2.51b 23.2 ± 4.70ab 22.6 ± 2.33a 23.4 ± 2.18 23.3 ± 1.94 22.3 ± 1.89 0.350
n-3 PUFA        
 C18:3n-3 (ALA) 0.27 ± 0.10c 0.39 ± 0.09b 0.50 ± 0.18a 0.31 ± 0.18 0.25 ± 0.06 0.26 ± 0.11 0.001
 C20:4n-3 (ETA) 0.06 ± 0.03c 0.08 ± 0.05b 0.11 ± 0.03a 0.05 ± 0.01 0.05 ± 0.02 0.05 ± 0.02 0.001
 C20:5n-3 (EPA) 0.21 ± 0.08b 0.23 ± 0.09b 0.33 ± 0.11a 0.22 ± 0.08 0.24 ± 0.11 0.22 ± 0.07 0.001
 C22:5n-3 (DPA) 0.20 ± 0.07b 0.20 ± 0.08b 0.30 ± 0.10a 0.27 ± 0.09 0.29 ± 0.10 0.26 ± 0.09 0.006
 C22:6n-3 (DHA) 0.77 ± 0.24 0.83 ± 0.34 0.76 ± 0.28 0.82 ± 0.28 0.82 ± 0.29 0.76 ± 0.22 0.796
 Total n-3 1.62 ± 0.37c 1.87 ± 0.50b 2.16 ± 0.58a 1.77 ± 0.51 1.75 ± 0.45 1.70 ± 0.42 0.001
Sum        
 Σ SFA 40.8 ± 6.23a 39.6 ± 6.01ab 38.3 ± 4.69b 39.8 ± 3.31 38.8 ± 2.78 39.5 ± 4.48 0.616
 Σ MUFA 35.9 ± 5.04 35.3 ± 3.92 36.8 ± 4.19 34.9 ± 2.65b 36.0 ± 2.31a 36.4 ± 3.23a 0.294
 Σ PUFA 23.3 ± 2.72b 25.2 ± 4.65b 24.9 ± 2.66a 25.3 ± 2.46 25.2 ± 1.93 24.1 ± 1.85 0.099
Ratio        
n-6/n-3 13.9 ± 3.22a 13.5 ± 5.63a 11.0 ± 2.44b 13.9 ± 2.75 14.1 ± 3.63 13.9 ± 3.75 0.001
 AA/EPA 15.9 ± 4.33a 14.8 ± 4.19a 10.6 ± 2.49b 17.5 ± 5.50 17.1 ± 5.64 18.2 ± 7.00 0.001
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD.
  2. All FA were statistically analyzed with GLM repeated-measured analysis; abcDifferent letters indicate significant differences between FA proportions within the treatment groups (P ≤ 0.05); 1Differences between the test group and control group at day 56 (end of intervention) were analyzed with GLM univariate ANCOVA (age and baseline value as covariate, pairwise comparison with bonferroni adjustment).