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Table 2 Effect of WP supplementation on the levels of free radicals in the wound tissues of diabetic mice

From: Camel whey protein enhances diabetic wound healing in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model: the critical role of β-Defensin-1, -2 and -3

   Blood parameters Wound tissue parameters
Day post injury Groups Glucose Insulin ROS Hydroperoxide
   (mg/dl) (ng/ml) (μmol/ml) (mg/100ml)
Day 1 Control 137±13 5.1±0.48 41±5.1 23±2.2
Diabetic 411±37 *# 1.7±0.15 *# 92±8.4 *# 59.1±4.6 *#
Diabetic + WP 287±27 + 3.1±0.29 + 68±7.1 + 33.4±4.2 +
Day 4 Control 143±14.4 6.4±0.61 58±6.2 17±2.1
Diabetic 393±33 *# 1.4±0.3 *# 117±12 *# 67±5.3 *#
Diabetic + WP 279±28 + 2.9±0.25 + 79±8.1 + 37.6±4.1 +
Day 7 Control 111±13 5.7±0.5 49.8±5.1 27.1±2.9
Diabetic 376±33 *# 1.1±0.22 *# 132±14 *# 59.8±5.5 *#
Diabetic + WP 267±24.8 + 3.4±0.3 + 71.7±8 + 42.1±4.1 +
Day 10 Control 99±10.4 7.1±0.75 61.5±5.6 19.9±1.7
Diabetic 419±38.4 *# 1.6±0.19 *# 126±13 *# 48.6±4.9 *#
Diabetic + WP 284±26 + 3.9±0.38 + 83±7.5 + 34±3.8 +
Day 13 Control 119±13.4 6.4±0.6 52.3±4.8 15.5±1.1
Diabetic 373.6±32 *# 1.45±0.2 *# 89.9±7.8 *# 39.8±3.2 *#
Diabetic + WP 261±25.5 + 3.3±0.3 + 67.1±7.2 + 24.6±2.6 +
  1. The levels of blood glucose and insulin in the three groups of mice were monitored on days 1, 4, 7, 10 and 13 post wounding. The levels of ROS and hydroperoxide in the excisional wound tissue collected from the three groups of mice on days 1, 4, 7, 10 and 13 post wounding were also measured. The accumulated data from 10 individual mice from each group are shown. The data were first tested for normality and variance homogeneity prior to any further statistical analysis. The data were normally distributed and are expressed as the mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05, diabetic vs. control; +P < 0.05, diabetic + WP vs. control; #P < 0.05, diabetic + WP vs. diabetic (ANOVA with Tukey’s post-test).