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Table 5 Change of energy and nutrition intakes

From: Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis) juice mixture reduces serum cholesterol in middle-aged men: a randomized controlled pilot study

  Control group (n = 8)   Intervention group (n = 8)  
Baseline After 4 weeks   Baseline After 4 weeks  
Mean ± S.D. Mean ± S.D. p Mean ± S.D. Mean ± S.D. p
Energy (kcal) 1,829 ± 401 1,955 ± 460 0.327 2,190 ± 293 2,247 ± 364 0.401
Protein (g) 73.1 ± 24.8 74.9 ± 26.7 0.484 77.3 ± 17.0 76.7 ± 16.7 0.889
Fat (g) 52.3 ± 15.0 50.1 ± 16.1 0.484 69.8 ± 14.7 61.0 ± 15.9 0.069
Carbohydrate (g) 248.0 ± 52.5 291.9 ± 77.0 0.327 288.0 ± 26.3 325.7 ± 54.0 0.025*
Sodium (mg) 4,251 ± 1,233 4,576 ± 1,519 0.123 4,339 ± 918 4,564 ± 868 0.401
Potassium (mg) 2,550 ± 1,105 3,049 ± 1,068 0.012* 2,815 ± 978 3,486 ± 766 0.017*
Calcium (mg) 611 ± 249 572 ± 283 0.401 610 ± 190 608 ± 159 0.674
Magnesium (mg) 266 ± 99 278 ± 101 0.263 286 ± 69 312 ± 64 0.069
Phosphorus (mg) 1,105 ± 392 1,126 ± 426 0.575 1,172 ± 282 1,173 ± 258 0.889
Iron (mg) 8.4 ± 3.5 8.9 ± 3.4 0.123 9.0 ± 2.6 9.8 ± 2.5 0.093
Zinc (mg) 8.7 ± 2.8 8.9 ± 2.9 0.484 9.1 ± 1.8 8.9 ± 1.9 0.833
Manganese (mg) 3.5 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.1 0.401 3.6 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 1.0 0.208
β-carotene equivalent (μg) 3,926 ± 2,674 3,945 ± 1,639 0.674 3,815 ± 2,357 4,795 ± 1,881 0.036*
Retinol equivalent (μg) 753 ± 555 808 ± 471 0.779 929 ± 459 855 ± 370 0.674
α-tocopherol (mg) 7.0 ± 2.5 7.6 ± 2.4 0.161 8.9 ± 2.9 9.7 ± 2.4 0.161
Vitamin C (mg) 101.6 ± 50.9 188.0 ± 67.0 0.012* 121.2 ± 67.3 223.9 ± 46.9 0.012*
Saturated fat (g) 13.6 ± 3.9 13.2 ± 5.0 0.674 18.7 ± 3.5 16.4 ± 3.9 0.093
Monounsaturated fat (g) 18.4 ± 5.4 17.7 ± 5.4 0.575 25.0 ± 5.3 21.5 ± 6.1 0.093
Polyunsaturated fat (g) 13.5 ± 4.0 12.4 ± 4.0 0.263 17.2 ± 4.1 14.9 ± 3.8 0.069
Cholesterol (mg) 417 ± 205 424 ± 193 0.889 434 ± 127 441 ± 153 0.779
Total dietary fiber (g) 12.2 ± 5.2 11.6 ± 4.0 0.484 13.6 ± 3.8 14.1 ± 3.9 0.484
Soluble dietary fiber (g) 3.1 ± 1.5 3.2 ± 1.3 0.673 3.5 ± 1.1 3.9 ± 1.1 0.093
Insoluble dietary fiber (g) 8.7 ± 3.5 8.1 ± 2.6 0.263 9.6 ± 2.5 9.6 ± 2.6 1.000
Sodium chloride equivalent (g) 10.8 ± 3.1 11.6 ± 3.8 0.123 10.9 ± 2.3 11.5 ± 2.2 0.401
  1. Data shows mean ± S.D.
  2. Baseline vs After 4 weeks, Wilcoxon signed rank test, *p < 0.05.