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Table 1 Detailed characteristics of included patients

From: Markers of increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease

  Control group N = 45 CKD all stages N = 132 p Stage I/II N = 30 Stage III N = 30 Stage IV N = 30 Stage V N = 49 p
Age 59.4 ± 10.0 67.1 ± 12.9 P < 0.0001 69.0 ± 10.71 64.5 ± 14.8 67.9 ± 14.4 67.3 ± 12.11 P = 0.005
Sex, male (%) 35.6% 56.1% P = 0.017 51.9% 51.6% 36.0% (71.4)3 P = 0.0053
DM (%) 11.1% 34.1% P = 0.003 22.2% 32.31 24.0% 46.93 P = 0.003
Hypertension (%) 48.9% 88.6% P < 0.0001 92.6%3 90.3%3 92.0%3 83.7%3 P < 0.0001
Lipid disorders (%) 37.8% 31.1% NS 25.9% 38.7% 40.0% 24.5% NS
Obesity (%) 33.3% 37.1% NS 51.9% 45.2% 32.0% 26.5% NS
General atherosclerosis (%) 6.7% 25.0% P = 0.008 25.9% 16.1% 24.0% 30.6%2 P = 0.05
K + [mmol/l] 4.27 ± 0.52 4.64 ± 0.73 P = 0.007 4.59 ± 0.56 4.31 ± 0.48 4.62 ± 0.58 4.9 ± 0.92,7 P = 0.003
Haemoglobin [g/dl] 13.4 ± 1.5 11.3 ± 2.0 P < 0.0001 11.9 ± 1.81 12.6 ± 1.8 11.2 ± 2.03 10.2 ± 1.63,5,9 P < 0.0001
Platelet [*10 3 /μl] 246.3 ± 70.6 244.1 ± 95.3 NS 250.4 ± 108.6 243.2 ± 71.4 250.0 ± 120.2 238.0 ± 89.1 NS
Monocytes [*10 3 /μl] 0.44 ± 0.14 0.49 ± 0.23 NS 0.49 ± 0.21 0.50 ± 0.25 0.57 ± 0.29 0.46 ± 0.19 NS
CRP [mg/l] 1.7 (0.8-4.8) 6.4 (2.3-12.4) P < 0.0001 6.4 (2.0-12.7)1 3.9 (1.9-7.9) 7.6 (2.4-18.1)2 7.9 (3.4-17.1)3 P < 0.0001
ALP [U/l] 82.2 ± 34.9 94.5 ± 55.4 NS 93.3 ± 32.8 69.2 ± 31.7 111.8 ± 101.9 100.8 ± 40.18 P = 0.004
79.5 (59.2-97.0) 86.0 (66.0-108.2)   88.5 (66.7-106.6) 67.0 (51.0-82.0) 82.0 (66.0-107.0) 97.0 (73.5-117.0)
APTT [s] 29.4 ± 3.1 37.4 ± 11.4 P < 0.0001 34.2 ± 5.11 35.5 ± 12.4 40.0 ± 14.82 38.2 ± 10.43 P < 0.0001
APTT ratio 0.95 ± 0.21 1.13 ± 0.37 P = 0.002 1.06 ± 0.19 1.10 ± 0.45 1.16 ± 0.43 1.14 ± 0.342 P = 0.019
Fe [μmol/l] 16.9 ± 6.0 11.5 ± 6.2 P < 0.0001 10.5 ± 5.72 15.3 ± 8.1 11.0 ± 4.62 10.4 ± 5.53,7 P < 0.0001
TIBC [μmol/l] 49.0 (45.0-50.0) 44.6 (36.5-56.8) NS 54.2 (35.7-61.0) 61.0 (52.5-145.5) 45.0 (36.5-57.1)7 39.9 (34.7-47.6)3 P < 0.0001
Ferritin [ng/ml] 271.0 (8.5-328.0) 228 (105.5-680.5) NS 182.5 (66.0-421.2) 134.9 (49.0-221.0) 277 (153.3-868.0) 444 (137.0-844.0) NS (P = 0.097)
Ca 2+ [mmol/l] 2.36 ± 0.11 2.24 ± 0.23 P = 0.006 2.25 ± 0.20 2.34 ± 0.20 2.30 ± 0.21 2.15 ± 0.243,9,10 P < 0.0001
Inorganic P [mmol/l] 1.12 ± 0.15 1.49 ± 0.49 P < 0.0001 1.49 ± 0.66 1.23 ± 0.24 1.39 ± 0.361 1.67 ± 0.483,8 P < 0.0001
LDL [mmol/l] 3.50 ± 0.76 3.08 ± 1.66 P = 0.001 2.96 ± 1.08 3.25 ± 1.68 3.86 ± 2.77 2.69 ± 1.012 P = 0.007
HDL [mmol/l] 1.34 ± 0.36 1.26 ± 0.44 NS 1.37 ± 0.42 1.21 ± 0.38 1.38 ± 0.58 1.16 ± 0.39 NS (P = 0.077)
TG [mmol/l] 1.6 ± 1.0 1.91 ± 1.00 NS (0.063) 1.7 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 1.3 1.8 ± 1.0 1.8 ± 0.9 NS
Total cholesterol [mmol/l] 5.35 ± 0.79 5.13 ± 2.12 P = 0.033 5.05 ± 1.14 5.29 ± 1.72 6.08 ± 3.81 @4.54 ± 1.20 P = 0.035
Albumin [g/l] 44.8 ± 4.6 38.6 ± 6.1 P < 0.0001 38.1 ± 6.61 39.5 ± 6.8 39.4 ± 6.1 37.9 ± 5.53 P = 0.002
Urea [mmol/l] 5.7 ± 2.0 17.1 ± 10.3 P < 0.0001 14.1 ± 8.53 13.0 ± 12.82 17.5 ± 7.23 21.2 ± 9.63,9 P < 0.0001
5.1 (4.5-6.4) 15.5 (9.1-22.5)   11.5 (7.0-24.2) 9.8 (6.7-13.5) 17.0 (11.7-21.7) 20.6 (15.8-25.3)
Creatinine [μmol/l] 83.1 ± 14.5 330.1 ± 234.9 P < 0.0001 290.6 ± 247.73 159.6 ± 81.83 260.2 ± 139.53 502.5 ± 228.25,9 P < 0.0001
82.0 (75.0-92.0) 264 (131.7-470.5)   227 (109–415) 137 (113–174) 232 (172.5-300) 497 (329–677)3
Total protein [g/l] 69.5 ± 3.9 66.8 ± 10.0 NS 69.2 ± 10.5 63.7 ± 9.9 70.7 ± 9.8 65.4 ± 9.2 NS (P = 0.084)
Uric acid [μmol/l] 305.0 ± 83.9 416.2 ± 128.3 P < 0.0001 442.8 ± 122.83 418.3 ± 117.72 459.8 ± 134.73 375.7 ± 126.5 P < 0.0001
eGFR MDRD 74.0 (65.2-83.5) 21 (12.2-42.0) P < 0.0001 25.0 (14.7-53.2)3 42.0 (28.0-55.0)1 21.4 (14.9-29.0)3 12.0 (8.0-16.0)3,4,9 P < 0.0001
IVsd [mm] 13.6 ± 1.9 15.0 ± 2.6 P = 0.009 14.1 ± 1.8 14.7 ± 2.5 14.1 ± 2.1 16.3 ± 2.93,4,10 P < 0.0001
IVss [mm] 15.1 ± 1.4 15.5 ± 2.1 NS 16.0 ± 2.1 15.4 ± 1.9 15.0 ± 2.2 15.5 ± 2.2 NS
LV mass [g] 234.4 ± 51.1 345.0 ± 126.8 P < 0.0001 293.2 ± 72.5 326.8 ± 117.5 310.1 ± 96.0 403.5 ± 148.73,5,10 P < 0.0001
LV hypertrophy [%] 95.2(%) 94.2% NS 92.3% 96.6% 90.0% 95.6% NS
LV sys [mm] 37.1 ± 4.1 40.7 ± 7.6 P = 0.045 38.5 ± 5.7 39.9 ± 5.7 38.7 ± 6.3 43.2 ± 9.51 P = 0.035
LV dias [mm] 44.1 ± 7.0 48.7 ± 7.2 P = 0.007 46.0 ± 5.0 47.4 ± 6.4 47.7 ± 5.7 51.5 ± 8.52 P = 0.003
LA [mm] 40.6 ± 2.9 42.4 ± 4.1 P = 0.036 41.3 ± 2.9 41.2 ± 3.9 41.7 ± 3.2 44.2 ± 4.62,4,8 P < 0.0001
RV [mm] 26.0 ± 3.3 27.5 ± 3.8 NS 27.6 ± 2.1 26.8 ± 4.7 26.9 ± 3.8 28.1 ± 3.8 NS
E/A 0.87 ± 0.27 1.09 ± 0.59 NS 1.09 ± 0.73 0.80 ± 0.17 1.14 ± 0.187 1.21 ± 0.66 P = 0.014
E/E’ 7.9 ± 1.7 10.7 ± 4.8 NS 8.6 ± 4.2 8.8 ± 4.1 12.6 ± 4.6 12.3 ± 4.9 NS
Dec (DT) 209.6 ± 56.2 270.6 ± 123.6 NS 301.5 ± 157.9 321.3 ± 132.8 213.2 ± 73.4 246.6 ± 98.2 NS
Contractility disorders [%] 52.4% 62.2% NS 36.8% 45.0% 43.8% 88.4%2,6,9,11 P = 0.0001
EF% 53.0 ± 3.5 48.5 ± 8.6 P = 0.012 50.8 ± 4.5 51.1 ± 8.4 49.9 ± 10.2 45.5 ± 8.97 P = 0.001
Mitral valve fibrosis [%] 63.6% 82.4% NS (P = 0.079) 87.0% 73.9% 70.6% 88.9% NS
Aortic valve fibrosis [%] 13.6% 12.0% NS 8.7% 8.7% 11.8% 15.6% NS
Mitral valve calcification [%] 9.1% 21.3% NS 8.7% 13.0% 11.8% 15.6% NS
Aortic valve calcification [%] 9.5% 39.8% P = 0.008 26.1% 21.7% 23.5% 35.6% NS
IM [%] 63.6% 71.6% NS 65.2% 54.2% 64.7% 86.7%2 P = 0.045
IA [%] 4.8% 12.8% NS 13.0% 8.3% 5.9% 17.8% NS
IT [%] 36.4% 58.3% NS (P = 0.059) 47.8% 43.5% 47.1% 75.6%2,4,7 P = 0.012
Fetuin A [ng/ml] 37.5 (31.6-126.6) 33.2 (27.5-89.4) P = 0.018 70.6 (30.9-119.7) 34.1 (28.5-92.5) 31.4 (26.2-114.0) 29.8 (25.5-37.5)2,4 P = 0.002
Osteocalcin [ng/ml] 9.1 ± 6.0 13.6 ± 10.3 P = 0.05 10.6 ± 9.0 8.4 ± 5.8 11.7 ± 9.8 19.2 ± 11.13,4,9 P < 0.0001
8.2 (5.1-13.0) 10.5 (5.0-23.1)   6.7 (4.3-19.1) 7.6 (4.3-11.9) 9.2 (4.5-17.9) 22.9 (8.5-28.2)
Osteopontin [ng/ml] 8.8 (7.2-37.8) 9.3 (7.8-17.8) NS 9.4 (6.7-20.9) 8.1 (7.4-16.1) 9.8 (8.1-25.2) 9.3 (8.0-13.8) NS
Osteoprotegerin [pmol/l] 7.6 ± 5.5 8.5 ± 6.2 NS 7.5 ± 6.9 5.8 ± 4.6 8.2 ± 6.0 10.8 ± 6.22 P = 0.005
5.7 (2.9-12.0) 7.4 (3.5-12.2)   7.2 (1.1-11.0) 5.2 (1.1-9.5) 6.3 (3.7-11.6) 10.1 (6.1-14.4)
MGP [ng/ml] 92.9 ± 28.5 86.7 ± 36.7 NS 77.1 ± 43.5 83.1 ± 33.9 89.5 ± 32.1 92.6 ± 36.7 NS
ABCG1 [ng/ml] 2.25 (0.98-2.58) 1.93 (0.72-2.43) NS 1.94 (1.64-2.34) 1.86 (0.59-2.36) 2.19 (0.89-2.63) 1.84 (0.46-2.49) NS
ABCA1 [ng/ml] 0.70 (0.62-0.75) 0.60 (0.44-0.74) NS (P = 0.079) 0.71 (0.55-0.88) 0.51 (0.41-0.71) 0.59 (0.42-1.02) 0.58 (0.30-0.71) NS (P = 0.054)
MMP-2 [ng/ml] 94.8 (54.2-166.3) 129.9 (73.4-219.3) P = 0.045 206.9 ± 142.7 202.5 ± 152.3 160.6 ± 130.0 130.7 ± 105.8 P = 0.008
113.1 ± 75.0 166.0 ± 129.9   166.9 (86.4-304.5)1 156.1 (105.7-274.2)1 136.5 (70.6-225.1) 103.4 (63.4-160.1)
MMP-9 [ng/ml] 21.5 ± 6.4 22.5 ± 7.1 NS 20.1 ± 7.4 21.9 ± 6.2 22.7 ± 8.0 23.9 ± 6.9 NS
TIMP-1 [ng/ml] 21.8 ± 3.7 21.4 ± 2.4 NS 19.8 ± 3.5 21.8 ± 2.2 21.7 ± 1.9 21.9 ± 1.54 P = 0.048
TIMP-2 [ng/ml] 22.1 ± 5.1 25.4 ± 7.0 P = 0.005 23.5 ± 6.4 23.9 ± 5.5 25.3 ± 6.5 27.3 ± 8.02 P = 0.003
MMP-2/TIMP-2 4.5 (2.5-7.9) 6.1 (3.0-11.4) NS (P = 0.056) 11.0 (5.7-17.9)2 7.4 (4.4-14.7) 6.3 (3.3-11.4) 3.8 (2.0-8.4)5 P = 0.001
MMP-9/TIMP-1 1.09 (0.65-1.28) 1.15 (0.75-1.37) NS 1.16 ± 0.56 1.17 ± 0.71 1.08 ± 0.41 1.11 ± 0.37 NS
Renalase [ng/ml] 251.0 ± 157.0 316.1 ± 155.3 P = 0.026 354.5 ± 181.6 235.3 ± 152.3 279.4 ± 162.2 369.0 ± 110.52,5 P < 0.0001
  1. 1vs control, p < 0.05; 2vs control, p < 0.01; 3vs control, p < 0.001.
  2. 4vs stage I-II, p < 0.05; 5vs stage I-II, p < 0.01; 6vs stage I-II, P < 0.001.
  3. 7vs stage III, p < 0.05; 8vs stage III, p < 0.01; 9vs stage III, p < 0.001.
  4. 10vs stage IV, p < 0.05; 11vs stage IV, p < 0.001.